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Paul C. Echols

revised by David Music

(b Northampton, MA, May 14, 1752; d New Haven, CT, Jan 11, 1817). American poet and author of hymn texts. He graduated from Yale College in 1769, becoming a tutor there two years later. He served as a chaplain in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and wrote the texts of several patriotic songs, one of which (“Columbia, Columbia, to Glory Arise,” 1787) became widely popular. From 1783 to 1795 he was pastor of the Congregational Church in Greenfield Hill, Connecticut, where he rose to eminence as a preacher, educator, and poet. He was elected president of Yale College in 1795. In 1798, at the request of both Congregational and Presbyterian governing bodies in Connecticut, he undertook a revised edition of Isaac Watts’s Psalms and Hymns to replace one by Joel Barlow (1785) that had previously been compiled for the Congregationalists. Issued at Hartford in ...

Article

Katy Romanou

(b Constantinople, 1862; d Athens, Greece, Aug 18, 1938). Greek musicologist, and pioneer historian of Greek Orthodox music. He graduated from the prestigious Megalē tou Genous Scholē in Constantinople in 1881, and was employed thereafter as a legal employee of the Patriarchate, reaching the highest rank (Megas prōtekdikos) in 1903.

In 1890 he published his Symbolai eis tēn historian tēs par’ hēmin ekklēsiastikēs mousikēs (‘Contributions to the History of our Church Music’), and in 1904 the Historikē episkopēsis tēs byzantinēs ekklēsiastikēs mousikēs (‘Historical Survey of Byzantine Ecclesiastical Music’). These are the first studies on Greek music history, after Chrysanthos of Madytos’s essay in his 1832 edition Theoretikon Mega tēs Mousikēs. Papadopoulos begins his Symbolai with ancient Greek music, while his Historical survey concentrates on more recent times, giving much information on contemporary persons and institutions. Both books are essentially a series of biographies grouped in periods defined by chapters on notation, theory, forms, music education, and the practice of chanting. They were based on a rich multilingual bibliography and many forgotten manuscripts that Papadopoulos studied during an eight-month research trip in libraries of Constantinople, Chios, Samos, Smyrna, Mutilene, and Cydonia, and in monasteries of Mounts Athos, Patmos, and Lesvos....

Article

Margaret Cayward

[Miguel José ]

(b Petra, Majorca, Spain, Nov 24, 1713; d Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Alta California [now in Carmel, CA], Aug 28, 1784). Spanish Franciscan friar and founder of the Alta California missions. Baptized Miguel José, upon joining the Franciscan order at age 17 he took the name of Junípero, after a companion of St. Francis. In 1742 Serra obtained a doctorate in theology at the Lullian University in Palma de Mallorca, where he was a professor of theology. Known as a forceful and zealous preacher with a resonant voice, in 1749 Serra sailed for New Spain to become a missionary. He served in the missions in the Sierra Gorda from 1750 to 1758, and the missions he administered there prospered. In order to better serve the indigenous population he served there, he learned the Otomí language. In 1758 Serra was recalled to the San Fernando College in Mexico City, where he remained until ...

Article

Esther R. Crookshank

(b Southampton, England, July 17, 1674; Stoke Newington, London, Nov 25, 1748). English hymn writer, clergyman, scholar, and author. Watts wrote hymns from age 20 for his Southampton congregation and from 1702 served as pastor in London. After giving up public ministry for health reasons in 1712, he exerted great influence on Puritan leaders in the American colonies through extensive correspondence and his published collections, which contained nearly 700 hymns and psalm paraphrases.

With The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament (1719) he undertook large-scale reform of Dissenting (non-Anglican) worship by writing new “Christianized” versifications of the Psalms; he believed the Psalter required revision to fit it for New Testament worship. His reform succeeded far beyond his expectations for many reasons, including the strong appeal of his vigorous, singable lyrics to Puritan ministers and worshippers in colonial New England, where they took deep root. Called the “liberator of English hymnody,” Watts produced psalm paraphrases and hymns that broke the grip of strict metrical psalmody in use for over a century in Protestant Britain and North America. Dozens of American compilers produced ...