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Article

Giovanni Carli Ballola

revised by Roberta Montemorra Marvin

(b Alessandria, March 20, 1851; d Alessandria, May 2, 1894). Italian organist and composer. He began his musical studies with his stepfather, Pietro Cornaglia. From 1868 to 1871 he attended the Milan Conservatory, studying the piano with Antonio Angeleri and composition with Lauro Rossi and Mazzucato. His graduation exercise, the cantata Caino e Abele, won the first prize and a medal of honour. He toured abroad as a concert pianist, but from 1880 until his death was organist at the cathedral in Alessandria, where he also founded a school of composition, singing and piano, and conducted concerts for the Associazione filarmonica alessandrina. He composed three operas, Isabella Spinola (1877, Milan), Maria di Warden (1884, Venice) and Una partita a scacchi (1892, Pavia), the latter based on Giuseppe Giacosa's popular comedy. In these works, which did not have much success, Abbà Cornaglia remained uninfluenced by the innovatory tendencies of the ‘Scapigliatura’ and of Catalani and by the new ...

Article

Roger Bowers

(b c1420; d 1497). English church musician. He was noted as a fine singer and skilful organist. After service in the household of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (until 1447), and as a lay clerk of Eton College (1447–51), where he was one of the four clerks specially responsible for singing polyphony in the college chapel, he became a clerk of the Chapel Royal in 1451, and Master of the Choristers there from 1455 to 1478. His duties included teaching the boys to play the organ and to sing plainsong and improvised polyphony; also it seems probable that he was instrumental in the introduction about this time of the use of boys’ voices in composed polyphony. The award to him in 1464 of a Cambridge MusB reflects his eminence in the musical profession – he is the earliest known recipient of this degree – while the patronage of Bishop Bekynton brought him valuable sinecures in the diocese of Bath and Wells. His last years were spent as a resident of Sanctuary Yard, Westminster Abbey....

Article

Robin Langley

(b c1749; d after 1794). English composer, organist and cellist. According to his recommendation by Francis Hackwood to the Society of Musicians, on 1 February 1784 he was 35 years old, married with two children, organist of Brompton Chapel and a competent violinist, viola player and cellist. He performed as a cellist in the Handel commemoration concerts in 1784 and played in the band for the Academy of Ancient Music during the 1787–8 season. He probably also took part as a cellist in the concerts (held annually) at St Paul’s Cathedral for the relief of the clergy in 1785, 1789, 1790, 1793 and 1795.

From his extant published works it can be seen that Adams was a competent purveyor of small-scale vocal and instrumental works in the manner of Haigh, Osmond or Reeve. His music shows an awareness of changing styles: the early songs and canzonets accompanied either by harpsichord or orchestra with obbligato instrument are in the manner of Arne, giving way to a symphonic style like that of J.C. Bach or Hook in the three sonatas of op.4 (for piano or harpsichord with violin or flute accompaniment); his late sonata for piano duet shows some grasp of larger forms, and ...

Article

Robin Bowman

(fl 1697–1706). Italian composer, violinist and organist, active in northern Europe. At one time he was in the service of the Prince of Carignan (a small town in the French Ardennes) and in this capacity appeared as a violinist before Louis XIV in 1697. About 1703 he was organist of the monastery at Kranenburg, on the present Dutch–German border. He published XII suonate a tre, duoi violini e violone col basso per l’organo op.1 (Amsterdam, 1703). One of the two surviving copies ( US-CHua ) bears the date 1706 on one partbook and the signature ‘Alberti’ on all four; a copy in Sweden ( S-L ) is also signed. The contents are all church sonatas, and each contains between six and eight movements, all in the same key. They are stolid, old-fashioned, rather uninspired works, competently written for the most part but using only the simplest imitative techniques and frequently becoming homophonic. The part for violone, which for Alberti meant ‘cello’, is sometimes quite elaborate, creating a genuine four-part texture....

Article

Lowell Lindgren

[‘Pippo del Violoncello’]

(b Rome, c1665; d London, c1725). Italian cellist and composer. He was mistakenly named ‘Filippo Mattei’ in Mattheson’s Critica musica (January 1723). He played at Rome in concerts and religious functions sponsored by Cardinal Pamphili (1685–1708), the church of S Luigi dei Francesi (1686–1711), Cardinal Ottoboni (1690–99), the Accademia del Disegno di S Luca (1702–11), Prince Ruspoli (1708–11) and the church of S Giacomo degli Spagnoli (1707–13). He joined the musicians’ Accademia di Santo Cecilia on 25 September 1690, was the organist at S Spirito in 1694 and a trombonist in the Concerto del Campidoglio beginning in 1702. He is called ‘Roman’ in the libretto for his oratorio Aman delusus (1699) and that of La stella de’ magi (1702) identifies him as a ‘virtuoso’ of Cardinal Ottoboni. He served as ...

Article

Arthur J. Ness

(fl Padua, c1545–50). Italian priest, composer, lutenist and guitarist. He composed or intabulated books 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 in Girolamo Scotto’s ten volume series of lute tablatures (Venice, 1546–9), which also included tablatures by Francesco da Milano, Rotta, Giovanni Maria da Crema and Borrono. Barberiis’s name is absent from lists of prominent Paduan musicians of the time, and only two of his pieces were reprinted in later collections. At best, his five books preserve the practical repertory of a ‘sonatore eccellentissimo di lautto’ who had little or no formal musical training.

Barberiis’s ricercares, fantasias and canzonas, some of which are in two or three sections, are usually constructed from a succession of chords (often drawn from madrigals or dances) filled out and linked by ornamental passage work. One fantasia is a simple gloss upon a composition by Francesco da Milano. Book 4 (1546...

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

(b France, mid-16th century; d Reims, c1620). French organist and calligrapher. He was organist at the cathedrals of Laon and Reims. Between 1583 and 1587 he copied out a manuscript by François Merlin, controlleur général for Marie Elizabeth, only daughter of Charles IX. The work, Recherches de plusieurs singularités ( F-Pn fonds fr. 9152), contains drawings, diagrams and finely written texts on a number of artistic and scientific subjects, including alphabets and the Lord's Prayer in many languages, exterior and interior views of buildings (among them two showing the organs in Reims Cathedral and the Ste Chapelle in Paris), scientific diagrams and maps, music, and drawings of musical instruments. Many of the pages are signed by Cellier. The volume was prepared for presentation to Henri III. The musical section is dated 1585.

Besides tunings, canons and short compositions, a table of notes and rests, and samples of tablature, the section on music contains detailed drawings, some of them incorrect, of many instruments, including the mandore, drums, trumpet, several wind bands, musical glasses, anvil, psaltery, hurdy-gurdy, transverse flute, viol, harp, bagpipe, violin, carillon, the Turkish ‘tambora’, jingles sewn on to a dancer, clavichord, regals, lute, triangle, cittern, a neo-classical lyre, virginals, guitar and panpipes (some of the drawings are reproduced as plates 6 and 7 in ...

Article

William Hays

(b ? c1636; d Paris, June 17, 1694). French composer, priest and serpent player. Papillon and Poisot asserted that he was born at Beaune. Brenet, however, maintained that he was born in Paris and that he entered the Ste Chapelle as a choirboy on 24 June 1645. The records of the Ste Chapelle relating to his death and burial state that he had been a choirboy there and had served the chapel uninterruptedly thereafter. On the title-page of his one extant work he is described as chaplain of the Ste Chapelle and also of Quimper Cathedral. Four masses by him were published in Paris: Missa ‘Pulchra ut luna’ (1689, 2/1729), Missa pro defunctis (1690), Missa ‘Floribus omnia cedant’ (1691) and Missa ‘Electa ut sol’ (1691), all for four voices, except the third, which was for five. Only the first is extant. Its style is simple and largely syllabic but with points of imitation even in the longer movements; it suffers from the monotony and narrow range of the melodic lines....

Article

(b Padua; d probably Padua, 1616). Italian composer, maestro di cappella and instrumentalist. He was a priest. A document dated 7 March 1595 shows that he was a trombone player at S Antonio, Padua. In the same year he was appointed for three years from 1 May as a trombonist in the chapel of Padua Cathedral, and this position was renewed in 1598. He was maestro di cappella at Montagnana, following Lucrezio Venturo, from 14 October 1600 to 24 August 1603; he was succeeded by Vincenzo Neriti. He maintained connections, during this period, with the chapel of Padua Cathedral and had occasional engagements there. On 21 February 1602 he had returned to the cathedral as a chorister. On 21 November 1602 he obtained a papal brève which allowed him to receive his salary while out of residence, and on 6 July 1606 he was appointed for six years as assistant ...

Article

Robert Thompson

(bap. Oxford, May 24, 1688; bur. Oxford, Jan 7, 1741). English organist and music copyist, son of Richard Goodson. He was baptized at the church of St Cross. He succeeded his father as professor of music at Oxford and as organist of Christ Church. Goodson was listed as choirboy at Christ Church from 1699 to 1707 and as singing-man from 1712 to 1718; Thomas Ford ( GB-Ob MS Mus.e.17) stated that he was appointed organist of Newbury on 24 August 1709. He matriculated on 3 March 1714 and graduated BMus on 1 March 1717. A number of manuscripts in Christ Church and the Bodleian Library, Oxford, contain music copied by him, but he does not appear to have been a composer, unless two anonymous works in his hand – an act song, Festo quid potius die ( Ob MS Mus.Sch.C.143, Och Mus 37, 1142b), and an incomplete Ode for St Cecilia's Day, ...

Article

Joan Parets i Serra

(b Palma de Mallorca, Aug 25, 1649; d Madrid, Oct 25, 1722). Spanish guitarist, singer, composer and priest. In 1659 he was admitted to the royal chapel in Madrid as a cantorcico (choirboy) and became a cantor (adult chorister) in 1669. From 1693 to 1701 he was chamber musician and maestro de capilla of the Colegio de Niños Cantores. His loyalty to Philip of Anjou was rewarded in 1700 when he was made a chaplain in the royal chapel. His brother Gabriel (?1653–1720) was also a singer.

Guerau’s Poema harmónico compuesto de varias cifras por el temple de le guitarra española (Madrid, 1694/R) includes 27 compositions and an introduction to the principles of tablature notation and ornamentation. The pieces are all variation sets of various types. Most are passacalles, but there are also other typically Spanish dances (jácaras, marizápalos, españoletas, folías etc.). Guerau’s style is characterized by its sobriety and by the use of ...

Article

Walter Blankenburg

[Niklas]

(b Altdorf, nr Nuremberg, 1500; d Joachimsthal [now Jáchymov], West Bohemia, May 15, 1561). German writer of hymn texts and melodies. From 1518 to 1560 he was schoolmaster, organist and Kantor in Joachimsthal. Johann Matthesius, Luther’s first biographer and headmaster of the Latin school there from 1532, was also, until 1565, minister of the church; Herman was associated with him both as a close friend and as a colleague, and thus came into contact with the Reformation from an early date. As early as 6 November 1524 Luther wrote to him as ‘viro pio et erudito’. Herman’s importance lies in his hymns, which were published in several volumes. He wrote both text and music, but most melodies are used for several texts. His poems are rhymed syllabic verses with no fixed metre. His Sunday Gospels, which retell Bible stories in rhymed stanzas, remained models for a succession of works of the same type well into the 17th century. In his endeavours to express Christian beliefs in the form of hymns Herman’s texts are close to those of Luther. Though never attaining the poetic force of the latter’s work, many have retained their place in the standard German Lutheran hymn repertory: above all ‘Lobt Gott, ihr Christen alle gleich’, ‘Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag’, ‘Die helle Sonn leucht jetzt herfür’, ‘Hinunter ist der Sonnen Schein’ and ‘Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist’. Many of his melodies show clear affinities with folk music: in particular the traditions of ...

Article

Sharon E. Girard

(b April 12, 1760; d March 1, 1797). Venezuelan composer, violinist, organist, pianist, educator and church musician. On 11 May 1789 he married Sebastiana Velásquez, sister of the composer José Francisco Velásquez. He composed mainly for Caracas Cathedral, in 1791 receiving 184 pesos for a collection of his sacred music; he was also employed by church confraternities. In October 1793, 1794 and 1796 he was in charge of the choral music for Caracas’s feast of Naval; in 1797 his son Juan Bautista held this post.

Article

William F. Prizer

(b Verona, c1470; d, May 1528). Italian priest, composer, singer and lutenist. With Tromboncino and Cara, he was one of the most important frottola composers. He was born in Verona in about 1470, the son of Alberto and Umilia Pesenti. Since he was a priest, he must have studied at the Scuola degli Accoliti in his native city, an institution founded by Pope Eugene IV that produced other cleric-composers, among them Marchetto Cara. Pesenti’s first known position was in Ferrara, where he served Cardinal Ippolito I d’Este, acting as a procurer of music and instruments as well as a lutenist, singer and composer. Already in 1504 he wrote to the cardinal from Venice promising to come to Ferrara as soon as an unnamed gentleman returned his lute. From 1506 his name appears in Ippolito’s payment registers, and it remains there, except for a probably illusory break in ...

Article

Robert Strizich

revised by Craig H. Russell

(b Santa María Ribarredonda, nr Burgos, before probably 1650). Spanish guitarist, harpist, composer and priest. He studied for the priesthood at the collegiate church of Villafranca del Bierzo, where he later became a prebendary. In his Luz y norte musical he stated that he began his musical studies after his ordination while in the service of the Counts Lemos and Andrade and their patron Don Fadrique of Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca. Other statements in this book imply possible affiliations with the Spanish court. He also mentioned having visited ‘remote and overseas provinces’ – undoubtedly a reference to his trip to Peru in 1677 with his patron, the Count of Lemos. The count’s entourage at the time included not only Ruiz de Ribayaz but also the distinguished theatre composer Tomás de Torrejón y Velasco, the finest composer in South America during the 18th century.

Ruiz de Ribayaz is known only through his ...

Article

Robert Strizich

revised by Richard Pinnell

(b Calanda, Aragon, mid-17th century; d early 18th century). Spanish guitarist, composer, and priest. Early in his life he received a Bachelor of Theology degree from the University of Salamanca and later travelled to Italy, where he studied music under Cristoforo Caresana and Lelio Colista, and possibly also under Orazio Benevoli and Pietro Andrea Ziani. On returning to Spain he published not only his Instrucción de música sobre la guitarra española but also two literary works: a Spanish translation of Daniello Bartoli’s L’uomo de lettere (Madrid, 1678) and a eulogy in praise of Pope Innocent XI entitled Ecos sagrados (Madrid, 1681).

Sanz’s Instrucción de música is the most comprehensive guitar treatise of its time. Comprising three books, it contains 90 pieces written for a five-course instrument tuned a/a–d′/d–g/g–b/b–e′. Most of its pieces are based on dance forms, such as the ...

Article

(d Hamburg, c1629). German organist. Early in 1595 he was appointed organist in Wöhrden, in the Dithmarschen region of Schleswig-Holstein, where his two sons, Heinrich and the painter Philipp, may have been born. It is uncertain whether he had another post before he moved to the Catharinenkirche in Hamburg in 1604. In that year the Melodeyen Gesangbuch, which contains Scheidemann's only extant compositions, was published. Shortly after his appointment, he initiated an extensive rebuilding of the organ in the Catharinenkirche, undertaken in 1605–6 by Hans Scherer the elder. Scheidemann's organ compositions, like those of many of his colleagues, do not survive. The 14 cantional settings in the Melodeyen Gesangbuch (Hamburg, 1604; ed. K. Ladda and K. Beckmann (Singen, 1995)), despite the limited stylistic range imposed by the publisher, show some lively and rhythmically interesting part-writing, particularly in the lower voices.

R. Hansen: ‘Zur Topographie und Geschichte Dithmarschens’, ...

Article

Martin Stokes

(b Sivrialan, Sivas, 1894; d Sivrialan, Sivas, March 21, 1973). Turkish folk musician who was blind. He was the product of a rural Turkish musical culture shaped by Alevi (heterodox Islamic) mysticism since at least the 15th century and focussed on the music of the bağlama or saz (long-necked plucked lute), played by ritual specialists known as aşık (‘lovers’; see Turkey §II 1.). Veysel was also shaped to a significant extent by the experience of nation-building in the early Turkish Republic, achieving distinction at the Republic’s decennial festival, Cumhuriyet Onuncu Yılı, in Ankara in 1933. His songs attracted the attention of the nationalist intelligentsia for their direct and unadorned expression of national sentiment and a humanistic mysticism; his work, largely improvised around fixed melodic and poetic schemes, was written down and extensively published. Songs such as Dostlar beni hatırlasın and Uzun ince bir yoldayım are widely known throughout Turkey. Along with many rural ...

Article

W.H. Husk

revised by Bruce Carr

(b London, March 20, 1804; d Bexley, Kent, March 8, 1881). English organist and writer on music. In 1834 he became organist of St Mary’s (Roman Catholic) Chapel, Chelsea, and composed some masses for its service. Between 1840 and 1860 he published many instruction books for organ, reed organ, concertina and church singing.

Warren was a careful and thorough editor of earlier English music: his edition of Boyce’s Cathedral Music, for example, included new biographies of the composers with exhaustive lists of their works. Such scholarship was facilitated by the large and valuable library he collected during his life, including the partbooks from which he edited Hilton’s Ayres or Fa Las, many unique sale catalogues, and autograph manuscripts of Purcell, A. Scarlatti, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. The fruits of his research appeared often in the early Musical World.

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(b Stockton-on-Tees, Sept 18, 1763; d Wycliffe Rectory, nr Barnard Castle, Nov 24, 1829). English musician and inventor . Wright was instructed in music by his father, Robert, by John Garth and, as an articled apprentice, by Thomas Ebdon. On expiration of his articles about 1784, he succeeded Garth as organist at Sedgefield. In 1794 he married Elizabeth Foxton and set to music her operetta, Rusticity. In the ‘Advertisement’ to his Concerto for Harpsichord or Pianoforte (London, c1796), he promoted his invention of a pendulum for keeping musical time as more practicable than the timekeepers of Loulié, Sauveur and others. A model of the invention, owned by Wright’s granddaughter, Miss Edith Wright of Wakefield, was seen by Frank Kidson, when compiling his article for Grove’s Dictionary (3rd edn). In 1797 Wright succeeded his father as organist at Stockton. In 1817 he was organist at Kirkleatham near Redcar; but sometime after he returned to Stockton and remained there as organist, teacher and composer until his death....