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Robert Stevenson

[Andres, Giovanni]

(b Planes, Alicante, Feb 15, 1740; d Rome, Jan 12, 1817). Spanish literary historian and music critic. He was professed in the Society of Jesus on 24 December 1754 and studied at Tarragona, Manresa, Gerona and Valencia from 1754 until 1763, when he was ordained a priest. Four years later, while teaching rhetoric and poetry at the University of Gandía, he was exiled with the rest of the Spanish Jesuits. He went first to Corsica, then to Italy, where he taught philosophy at Ferrara until 1773. After Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuits in 1773 Andrés devoted himself to letters and bibliography, living three years with the Bianchi at Mantua, and then travelling throughout Italy and in 1794 to Vienna. During his travels he maintained a correspondence with his brother Carlos, which was published from 1786 to 1794. The work contains much valuable material on music, particularly the third volume, which deals with Venetian conservatories, singers, opera and Greek-rite chant in ...


Iain Fenlon


(b Turin, April 25, 1719; d Marylebone, London, May 5, 1789). Italian man of letters. His Fetonte sulle rive del Po was set by G.A. Giai (1750, Turin). In January 1751 he left Italy, where he had a considerable literary reputation, for an appointment at the Italian Opera in London. Shortly after his arrival he wrote two facetious pamphlets relating to a dispute between the actors and the lessee of the Opera. He adapted selected odes of Horace as a sort of Masonic oratorio. Seeking a composer able to avoid the vocal clichés and long ritornellos of Italian opera and ‘to temper alternately the solemnity of church music with the brilliancy of the theatrical’, Baretti chose Philidor, with whom he discussed ‘every syllable … with respect to the best way of expressing musically the meaning of Horace’. Carmen saeculare was performed in London in 1779 and in Paris the year after. Baretti wrote in his copy of Johnson’s ...


Daniel Heartz

revised by Elisabeth Cook

(b Langres, Oct 5, 1713; d Paris, July 31, 1784). French philosopher, critic and writer. He is best known as principal editor of the Encyclopédie but was also an influential writer on music. Born into a bourgeois family and educated by Jesuits, he was a writer of immense knowledge, energy and determination, who was imprisoned briefly (in 1749) for his philosophical views yet showed a spirit of tolerance that set him apart from most of his friends and colleagues. As chief architect of the Encyclopédie, a task that occupied him for some 20 years, he had a strong impact on the musical thought of his own and subsequent times. Musical discussion is strewn throughout his voluminous writings on all subjects and in his fiction: scientific works on acoustics, sound production and sensory perception are complemented by aesthetic writings, by critical essays on drama, art and music, and by diverse literary texts (plays, novels, dialogues), pedagogical tracts and a rich correspondence....


(b Langenwiesen, nr Ilmenau, Feb 15, 1746; d Aschaffenburg, June 22, 1803). German aesthetician and writer on art and music. As a youth he was a mediocre student, but he eventually pursued law at the universities of Jena and Erfurt. At Erfurt he studied with the aesthetician F.J. Riedel and made the acquaintance of Wieland, who recommended him to Gleim at Halberstadt. With the sponsorship of Gleim he became a private tutor and freelance writer at Quedlinburg. In 1774 he collaborated with the Jacobi brothers on the magazine Iris at Düsseldorf. He began a three-year trip to Italy in 1780, staying mostly in Rome, where he immersed himself in art and translated Orlando furioso and Gerusalemme liberata. Back in Düsseldorf, he wrote on the aesthetics of art in the novel Ardinghello (c1784–5), but his interests soon returned to music. Entering the service of the Elector of Mainz, Heinse became lecturer in ...


Julian Rushton

revised by Manuel Couvreur

(b Paris, Nov 20, 1739; d Paris, Feb 11, 1803). French man of letters. He wrote several tragedies, of which Le comte de Warwick (1763) was the most successful, but he is chiefly remembered for his didactic and critical works. These include the Cours de littérature in 16 volumes (1799–1805), in which he holds a special place for French librettists of the 17th and 18th centuries, and an Eloge de Racine (1772). A dogmatic critic with little understanding of music, he joined with Marmontel to support the Italians against Gluck, and particularly favoured Sacchini; his virulent attack on Armide in the Journal de politique et de littérature (5 October 1777) was ridiculed by Gluck himself in the Journal de Paris (12 October 1777) and by La Harpe’s colleague J.B.A. Suard using the pseudonym ‘L’anonyme de Vaugirard’. His Correspondance littéraire...


Howard Serwer

(b Seehof, nr Wendemark, Brandenburg, Nov 21, 1718; d Berlin, May 22, 1795). German critic, journalist, theorist and composer. Gerber claimed that Marpurg had told him that he lived in Paris around 1746; Carl Spazier confirmed this, adding that Marpurg was friendly with Voltaire, D'Alembert and others when he was secretary to a ‘General Bodenburg’. This is generally assumed to refer to Generallieutenant Friedrich Rudolph Graf von Rothenburg, a favourite of Frederick the Great and Prussian emissary to Paris in 1744–5, and the dedicatee of Marpurg's Der critische Musicus an der Spree (1749–50).

From 1749 to 1763 Marpurg devoted himself almost exclusively to writing and editing books and periodicals about music and to composing and editing lieder and works for keyboard. In 1752, at the request of the heirs of J.S. Bach, he wrote a notable preface for a new edition of Die Kunst der Fuge...


(b Nuremberg, bap. March 3, 1720; d Altdorf, cFeb 5, 1771). German theologian and writer on music. After studies at Altdorf and Halle he held posts at the Dominican church at Nuremberg and parish church at Rasch before becoming professor of theology and deacon (later archdeacon) at Altdorf in ...


(b Meiningen, Jan 16, 1728; d Marktbreit, Lower Franconia, April 8, 1799). German theologian and writer on music. From 1749 he attended Leipzig University and probably studied music with J.S. Bach. About 1754 he was in Naumburg, and in 1762 he was made rector of the Lateinschule in Marktbreit where in 1788 he became deputy pastor and assessor of the prince’s consistory. He published a widely acclaimed Musico-theologia, oder Erbauliche Anwendung musicalischer Wahrheiten (Bayreuth and Hof, 1754), directed against certain Enlightenment doctrines; the work is noteworthy for its date in containing several laudatory references to Bach, and reveals an unusual degree of familiarity with his works. Schmidt has also been suggested as the recipient of Bach’s seven-part Faber-Kanon (bwv1078), though Balthasar Schmid is more often proposed for that role.

P. Spitta: Johann Sebastian Bach, 2 (Leipzig, 1880, 5/1962; Eng. trans., 1884, 2/1899/R) H. Besch...


George J. Buelow

(b Muggendorf, Upper Franconia, bap. Dec 5, 1721; d Burgbernheim, Middle Franconia, Jan 10, 1788). German writer on music. He attended the Gymnasium Casimirianum Academicum in Coburg (but not until 1741–4), and studied philosophy, theology and oriental languages at Erlangen University until 1746. In 1747 he was appointed an adiutor at the Gymnasium in Bayreuth and received in 1748 the position of preacher in the suburb of St Georgen. On 22 January 1753 he was made an honorary member of the Lateinische Gesellschaft in Jena, and in April of that year became pastor in Lenkersheim. Finally in 1766 he moved to Burgbernheim as pastor and church superintendent. Among many publications, largely concerning church matters, his only musical work is Orgelhistorie (Nuremberg, 1771/R), a modest publication of 167 pages which originated as the sermon given for the dedication of the rebuilt organ in his church. In it Sponsel attempted to trace the history of the organ from ancient times, though he disclaimed any goal of completeness. His history is faulty and undependable, and heavily indebted to books on the organ by Praetorius, Printz, Werckmeister and Adlung. Most significant, however, and of continuing value, is a fairly detailed description of 26 important Franconian and Regensburg organs, with data compiled through correspondence....


Philip Downs

(b Twickenham, Jan 8, 1735; d Colchester, Aug 6, 1804). English clergyman and amateur musician. As the eldest son, Twining was intended to enter the tea business founded by his grandfather, but his distaste for business and aptitude for scholarship took him to Cambridge University in 1755. There he became acquainted with the poet Thomas Gray, who modified his antiquarian tastes in music and made him aware of Pergolesi and the moderns. As a result of his classical studies Twining was vastly knowledgeable about ancient music, and he helped extensively in the preparation of the first volume of Charles Burney's History (1776), which would have had a completely different complexion without Twining's input in planning and content. It is possible that Burney might never have written beyond the first volume without the encouragement of Twining, whose humour and common sense enabled him to help Burney through deep depressions experienced during the writing. He refused Burney permission to mention the debt owed to him. An equal diffidence inhibited his desire to publish his own work. His translation of Aristotle's ...


Nicholas Carolan

(b Dublin, 1761; d Dublin, 1810). Irish antiquary . He was influenced by contemporary European interest in exotic music, and wrote the first book on Irish music Historical Memoirs of the Irish Bards (Dublin, 1786, enlarged 2/1818) when he was 24 and a treasury clerk in Dublin Castle. Romantic in sensibility, prolix in style and largely derived from printed sources in English (Walker knew no Irish), the work nonetheless preserves original information researched by him, particularly in relation to the harper Turlough Carolan, and has served as a model for later writers. It also contains some of the earliest translations into English of Gaelic heroic lays. The appendixes include contributions from fellow antiquaries and an interesting group of 15 melodies which range from bagpipe laments and a plough tune to Gaelic song airs and harp tunes. An extra 28 melodies in the posthumous second edition are all from contemporary printed sources....