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Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(b Santa Cruz, Manila, May 14, 1876; d Manila, April 23, 1944). Filipino composer, conductor and violin teacher. At an early age he studied solfège, composition, conducting and the violin with Ladislao Bonus. He played the violin in the Rizal Orchestra in his youth, and in 1910 he founded the Oriental Orchestra; in the early 1920s he conducted many zarzuelas and operas. He was the moving spirit behind the Manila Chamber Music Society, of which he became director in 1921. A well-known violin teacher, he also excelled as a nationalist composer. Among his works are the zarzuelas Ang sampaguita (‘The Sampaguita Flower’), Anak ng dagat (‘Son of the Sea’), Luha’t dugo (‘Tears and Blood’), Ang masamang kaugalian (‘The Bad Traits’), Delinquente and Declaracion de amor. Other compositions include a cantata, O! dios sa kalangitan (‘O God in Heaven’), Ibong adarna (‘The Adarna Bird’), a coloratura song, and Kundiman...

Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(b Tagoloan, Oriental Misamis, July 13, 1922; d Fresno, CA, June 5, 1991). Filipina composer and conductor. She studied music at Lourdes College, the piano at St Scholastica’s College and composition at the Philippine Women’s University (MM 1957). Later she attended the Labunski School of Composition in Ohio, the Eastman School and the Catholic University of America, Washington, DC. A nun of the Order of the Virgin Mary, she taught music theory and composition, conducted fund-raising concerts, and travelled widely to take part in international music conferences. In 1977 she moved to the USA, teaching at Kansas University and St Pius Seminary in Kentucky before moving to Fremont, California; in 1980 she was elected president of the Philippine Foundation of Performing Arts in America. Among the honours she received were the Republic Culture Heritage Award (1967) and the Philippines’ Independence Day Award (1973). She produced over 300 compositions and some published music textbooks. Her style is marked by neo-classical and Impressionist features, with quartal harmonies, added-note chords, pentatonic and modal scales....

Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(b San Miguel, Bulacan, Feb 7, 1893; d Manila, March 21, 1934). Filipino composer, conductor and teacher. As a child he had violin lessons from his father, and in 1901 he wrote his first composition, Ang unang buko (‘The First Fruit’), a waltz. He was sent to study at the Liceo de Manila and he learnt to play the piano, but at the same time he had to take various jobs to support himself and his family. In 1916 he entered the Conservatory of the University of the Philippines, and in the next year he composed a march, U. P. Beloved, which won first prize in an open competition. He studied with Victoriano Carreon (singing), José Silos (bandurria), Bonifacio Abdon (violin) and José Estella (piano); he received a teacher’s certificate at the conservatory in 1921, and in 1923 he pursued postgraduate studies there.

The piano concerto, which he wrote for these later courses, was the first concerto written by a Filipino. From the same period are ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Montevideo, August 4, 1940). Uruguayan composer, musicologist and teacher of Armenian parentage. He studied composition with Tosar (1955–7, 1966–9), the piano with Adela Herrera-Lerena (1945–59), conducting with Jacques Bodmer (1966–9), musicology with Ayestarán (1964–6) and electro-acoustic techniques with Henry Jasa (1961–3). In Buenos Aires he studied at the Instituto Torcuato di Tella with Gandini and Kroepfl (1969), in Venice with Nono (1970), at the Darmstadt summer courses with Ligeti, Aloys Kontarsky, Xenakis, Globokar and Christian Wolff (1970, 1974), and at various of the Latin American Courses for Contemporary Music with Mumma, Rabe and others (1971–89).

Aharonián has been influential as a teacher and as an organizer of activities in music and music education both in Uruguay and abroad. His teaching specializations range from composition, choral conducting and organology to analysis, musical folklore and music and society; he has taught mainly at the Uruguayan National University and the National Institute for Teacher Training, as well as privately. An assiduous participant and lecturer in seminars and workshops in Europe, the Americas and the Philippines, he has been a member of the executive committee of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music and of the presidential council of the ISCM, and the executive secretary of the Latin American Courses for Contemporary Music. He has received numerous awards from Uruguay and other countries for his work as a composer, musicologist and choral conductor, and commissions from France, Poland, Sweden and Germany....

Article

Faruk Yener

revised by Münir Nurettin Beken

(b Istanbul, May 6, 1908; d Ankara, Feb 16, 1999). Turkish composer. He was a member of the Turkish Five, a group of outstanding composers who, from the 1930s, promoted a Western musical style. Akses first played the violin and then took up the cello at the age of 14. He studied harmony with Cemal Reşit Rey at the Istanbul Municipal Conservatory. In 1926 he left for Vienna where he attended Joseph Marx’s harmony, counterpoint and composition classes for advanced students at the Academy. After receiving his diploma in 1931, he went to Prague and studied with Josef Suk and Alois Hába at the Prague Conservatory. He returned to Turkey in 1934 and was appointed a teacher of composition at the Music Teachers School, becoming its director in 1948. He then took a number of official positions: in 1949 he was director general of the Fine Arts Section of the Ministry of Education, then cultural attaché in Berne (...

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

(Heinz)

(b Berlin, Aug 9, 1915). Israeli composer of German birth. His studies at the Stern Conservatory were halted in 1936 as a result of the Nazi persecution, and in the same year he emigrated to Palestine. There he studied composition with Wolpe and the piano with Irma Wolpe-Schoenberg and Ilona Vince-Kraus. As a student he made his living as a café jazz pianist in Jersualem and established himself as an excellent improviser. From 1945 until his retirement he was a professor at the Rubin Academy of Music, Jerusalem. A highly versatile musician, he taught the piano, the harpsichord, theory, composition and improvisation. He also lectured in the musicology departments of Tel-Aviv University, the Hebrew University, the Institut Jaques-Dalcroze, Geneva, and New York University.

One of the diverse group of composers who emigrated from Europe to Palestine during the 1930s, Alexander experienced the tension between the ideological pressure to create a new national style with a nebulous Middle Eastern and folklike orientation, and the urge to keep abreast of current Western music. This tension is reflected in the contrast between the post-Romantic chromaticism of ...

Article

Laudan Nooshin

(b Tehran, 1951). Iranian tār and setār player, teacher and composer. He studied at the National Music Conservatory in Tehran from the age of 13 and then at the University of Tehran from 1970 to 1974; his teachers included Habibollah Salehi, Ali Akbar Shahnazi, Nur Ali Borumand, Abdollah Davami, Mahmud Karimi, Yusef Forutan, Said Hormozi, Dariush Safvate and Hooshang Zarif. From 1971 Alizadeh studied and taught at the influential Centre for the Preservation and Propagation of Iranian Music in Tehran; he later taught music theory and tār at the University of Tehran. In 1976 he began his association with Iranian National Radio and Television, working as a soloist, a composer and a conductor. He co-founded the Chavosh Cultural Artistic Centre in 1977 and the Aref Ensemble in 1983; he also worked with the Sheyda Ensemble. In the early 1980s he studied musicology and composition at the University of Berlin. In ...

Article

Faruk Yener

(b Istanbul, March 11, 1906; d Ankara, July 27, 1978). Turkish composer and conductor. He had his first music lessons from his mother. He showed a precocious talent for playing the qānūn and at 16 he composed a musical play in traditional Turkish monophonic style. In 1927 he went to Vienna and studied composition with Joseph Marx at the Academy of Music and conducting with Oswald Kabasta. He returned to Turkey in 1932, was appointed conductor to the Istanbul City Theatre Orchestra and taught history of music at the Istanbul Conservatory. In 1936 he became assistant conductor of the Ankara Presidential SO, taught piano at the State Conservatory and was an assistant to Carl Abert at the Ankara State Opera. In 1946 he was appointed conductor of the Presidential PO and held the post until 1952, when he left because of a nervous breakdown, though he continued to teach at the conservatory and to appear as guest conductor in Ankara and with the Vienna SO and the Stuttgart RSO. One of the Turkish Five, Alnar showed strong attraction in his works to the rhythmic and melodic patterns of Turkish monophonic music. (...

Article

Natan Shahar

(b Warsaw, Aug 8, 1909; d Yakum Kibbutz, Israel, Dec 18, 1993). Israeli composer and teacher of Russian descent. He received his early musical education in Moscow. In 1924 he emigrated with his family to Palestine, where he continued his musical studies with Shlomo Rozovsky (1928–9). He began to compose in 1930. From 1934 to 1936 he studied music education at Trinity College, London, and composition with Bantock and Rowley; at the same time he also studied at Tonic Sol-fa College, London. With the formation of the Israeli Army, he was appointed First Officer for music, founding the orchestras of both the army and the cadets. In 1949 he became the central inspector for music education at the Ministry of Education, a post he held until his retirement in 1975.

Amiran was one of the Ereṣ Yisrael composers who developed the character of what became known as typical Israeli folksong. His vast number of songs (around 600), many of which set biblical texts, were published in a wide array of pamphlets and song books. The most notable of these include: the nursery songs ...

Article

Gulbat Toradze

(b Vladikavkaz, Feb 23, 1878; d Tbilisi, Aug 13, 1953). Georgian composer, musicologist and teacher. An academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and Laureate of the USSR State Prize (1950), Arakishvili is one of the founders of the Georgian School of composition. In the period 1894–1901 he attended the school of music and drama (attached to the Moscow Philharmonic Society) where he studied composition with A. Il′insky, and theory with S. Kruglikov (1894–1901), later improving his compositional technique with Grechaninov (1910–11). In 1917 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Archaeology. In 1897 he had started writing for the Russian and the Georgian press on musical matters, in 1901 became a member of the musico-ethnological commission at Moscow University, and in 1907 a member of the Georgian Society for Literature and Art in Moscow. He was an associate of the foremost Russian composers of the day – such as Taneyev, Ippolitov-Ivanov, Arensky and Pyatnitsky – and was one of the organizers of the People’s Conservatory in Moscow (...

Article

Detlef Gojowy

[Sergey Vasilyevich]

(b Tbilisi, Georgia, 26 Aug/Sept 8, 1887; d Tbilisi, Oct 29, 1972). Georgian composer and teacher. He began his music studies with the pianist Karakhovna in 1898; he then studied the piano with Stakhovsky and Truskovsky, and theory and solfège with Paliashvili at the Tbilisi Music Institute (1900–07). He won by competition a place at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1907–9) and later studied with Kalafati, Steinberg and Vītols at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1910–15). Subsequently, as a teacher at the conservatories of Tbilisi (1923–54) and Yerevan (1934–37, professor 1941), he instructed many of the leading composers of Armenia and Georgia including Aleksandr Arutyunian and Muradeli. He also appeared as a pianist in Moscow, Leningrad and Caucasian republics. His honours included the titles People’s Artist of the Armenian SSR, Honoured Artist of the Georgian SSR, and the Order of Lenin....

Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(b Santa Maria, Bulacan, Oct 14, 1929). Filipino composer, conductor and teacher. He studied at the universities of S Tomas and Centro Escolar, and at the Gregorian Institute. Teaching appointments followed at the Philippine Women’s University, St Scholastica’s College and other institutions. For a time he was the organist of Manila Cathedral, and he has also been active as the director of several bands and of the glee club of Ateneo University, Loyola. He became dean of the Centro Escolar University Conservatory and received the Republic Cultural Heritage Award twice (1964, 1972); he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Philippine Women's University in 1989. His compositions, often based on Philippine legend and history, use Romantic, Impressionist and contemporary idioms.

(selective list)

Article

Keith Howard

[Hwang Pyŏnggi]

(b Seoul, May 31, 1936). Korean composer and performer of the kayagŭm, a 12-string long zither. After learning the kayagŭm with Kim Yŏngyun, Kim Yundŏk and Shim Sanggŏn, he became an instructor at Seoul National University and the National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts. In 1974 he joined the music faculty at Ewha Women’s University. He has won national prizes as both a performer and composer, and has been influential as a board member of the Cultural Properties Management Committee. He led South Korean performance troupes sent to North Korea. Abroad, he has been artist-in-residence at the universities of Hawaii and Washington, and a visiting scholar at Harvard. He has established his own school of the traditional genre sanjo, publishing a related score and CD in 1998.

He claims, with some justification, to have composed the first contemporary music for a Korean instrument in 1963. This was ...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Constantinople, 1837; d Izmir, March 23, 1898). Armenian composer, conductor and teacher. He studied with G. Yeranian and Mangioni at Constantinople, then at the Milan Conservatory (1861–4). On his return to Turkey he took part in the activities of the Armenian Musical Society, published the journal K‘nar Haykakan (‘The Armenian Lyre’) with G. Yeranian, gave lectures and concerts, organized a small orchestra and worked with the Gusanergakan Music Theatre. He also worked from 1864 to 1867 with the Arevelyan Tadron, the theatre of the Constantinople Armenians, and it was there that his incidental music to the play Vardan Mamikonean, p‘erkitch hayreneats (‘Vartan Mamikonian, the Saviour of his Country’, by Durian, Terzian and Sedefjian) was first performed in 1867. In 1868 he completed the opera Arshak Erkrord (‘Arshak II’), to a libretto by Terzian, marking the birth of Armenian national opera. Excerpts were performed in Constantinople, Naples, Venice, Paris and Vienna during the composer’s lifetime. The score, which was thought to have been lost, was discovered in Yerevan in ...

Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(b Manila, May 15, 1909; d Manila, August 11, 1991). Filipino composer, conductor and pianist. In 1930 he graduated from the Conservatory of the University of the Philippines with teacher’s diplomas in piano and in theory and composition; he then studied at the Chicago Musical College (BMus 1932, MMus 1933) and the Neotarian College of Philosophy, Kansas City (PhD 1947). He taught at the University of the Philippines Conservatory (1930–34) and was director and professor at the Manila (1934–9, 1949–52) and Cosmopolitan College (1948–9) conservatories. During World War II he appeared as a pianist and conductor in the USA, Canada, Europe and Hawaii. He was a state cultural adviser (1958–60) and founder-president of the National Federation of Music. He lectured in humanities at the University of the City of Manila (1968–75), and after 1978 worked mainly in the USA, appearing as a composer-conductor at the Seattle Opera House....

Article

Alexander M. Cannon

(Cẩn )

(b Hà Nội, Việt Nam, Oct 5, 1921; d Hồ Chí Minh City, Jan 27, 2013). Vietnamese musician, composer, and educator. Born in Hà Nội’s Old Quarter, he joined the Việt Minh resistance to French occupation in the 1940s as a performer and composer of resistance songs. He used his experiences touring with a small ensemble as material for songs—including “Về Miền Trung” (“Return to the Central Region”) and “Bà Mẹ Gio Linh” (“The Mother of Gio Linh”)—to depict the hardship of the soldiers and residents he encountered. He broke with Việt Minh leadership in the early 1950s when they attempted to regiment artistic production. He declined an invitation to join the Communist Party and study composition in Moscow, and he eventually moved to Sài Gòn, where he composed some of his best-known works, including the song cycle Con đườ ng cái quan (The Mandarin Road) that depicts a north-to-south journey through Việt Nam, “Tình Hoài Hương” (“Feeling for One’s Homeland”), and “Ngậm Ngùi” (“Melancholy”), in which he set a poem by poet and Democratic Republic of Vietnam statesman Huy Cận to music. In ...

Article

Nathan Mishori

(b Warsaw, Jan 1, 1896; d Tel-Aviv, Dec 14, 1973). Israeli composer and teacher of Polish birth. He was brought up in his grandfather’s Hassidic home, where he absorbed Jewish folk and liturgical music and learnt to play the violin. A period in cosmopolitan Russia (1913–22) caused him to doubt the significance of his Jewishness, but back in Warsaw he regained his faith through Zionism. He taught music in Hebrew high schools and the Janusz Korczak orphanage, conducted the Hashomer Hatza’ir Choir, for which he arranged Jewish folksongs and composed, and founded the Hevrat Dorshei Musika Ivrit (Society for the Promotion of Hebrew Music) in 1928. In the previous year he had graduated from the State High School of Music, where he studied composition with Szymanowski, though the violin was his principal subject. He moved in 1929 to Palestine. In Tel-Aviv he worked as a teacher and choir director at the Lewinsky Teachers’ Seminary until ...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Vagharshapat, Feb 2, 1856; d Tbilisi, March 19, 1905). Armenian composer, teacher and choirmaster. He studied at the Gevork′ian Academy in Vagharshapat with Nikoghayos T′ashchian, who had published three volumes of his transcriptions of Armenian liturgical music. In 1879 Ekmalian entered the St Petersburg Conservatory to study with Rimsky-Korsakov, Iogansen and Solov′yov; he graduated in 1888 with the cantata Der Rose Pilgerfahrt (after M. Horn) of which only extracts survive. From 1890 until his death he lived in Tbilisi, teaching at the Nersessian College (1891–1902) and also directing the music college of the Russian Music Society (1893–4). In addition to teaching both conventional notation and the Armenian system devised by Hambartsum Lymonja (1768–1839) he organized an excellent chapel choir. He taught many singers who subsequently became well known; his composition pupils included Komitas and Tigranian. He spent much time collecting and arranging folksongs; his collection of liturgical music, which was completed in ...

Article

Olga Manulkina

(Grigor′yevna)

(b Tbilisi, Feb 11, 1919). Georgian composer, pianist and teacher. At the Tbilisi Conservatory she studied the piano with A. Tulashvili and composition with A. Ryazanov and Andria Balanchivadze, graduating in 1940 and 1945 respectively. In 1947 and 1950 she was a postgraduate student at the Moscow Conservatory, studying with Goldenweiser (piano) and Litinsky and Shebalin (composition). In 1944 she began her career as a pianist and teacher; she has taught in Tbilisi at the First Music College, the Paliashvili Central Music School and, from 1953, at the conservatory, where she was appointed professor in 1973. On Eksanishvili’s initiative, the first Georgian experimental school-studio was set up in 1973; the teachers there have used the method she expounded in her textbook Aisi (published 1972) of developing creative abilities using Georgian folksong. Eksanishvili’s piano music, comprising original compositions, transcriptions of works by Georgian composers and music for children, is the most significant part of her output. In ...

Article

Barbara Mittler

[Hsiao Erh-Hua]

(b mainland China, 1906; d 1985). Chinese composer and teacher resident in Taiwan. In the late 1930s he studied music and theory in Japan; after working as a music teacher in Guangxi and Fujian, he moved to Taiwan in 1946. There he helped to establish the music department at Taiwan Normal University, devoting his attentions more to musicology and teaching than to composition. In a period when concert performances were rare and only included music by foreign composers, Xiao introduced his students to the works of mainland Chinese composers such as Huang Zi, Chen Tianhe, Liu Xue′an, Lin Shengshi and Zhao Yuanren. This exposure encouraged his students, including such important Taiwanese composers as Hsu Tsang-houei and Ma Shuilong, to compose in the new Chinese art music style. Xiao himself wrote mainly vocal music in the prevailing ‘pentatonic Romantic’ style, combining Western tonal harmony with Chinese pentatonic melodies. Some of his songs, such as his famous ...