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Article

Sven Hansell and Marita P. McClymonds

(b ?Rome, Nov 24, 1747; d Casinalbo, nr Modena, Aug 15, 1798). Italian composer. According to Manferrari, he was born at S Damaso, near Modena. He studied in Naples and had his first large work, the oratorio Il Tobia, performed in Rome in 1765. Having gained recognition as a harpsichordist and conductor in Turin and in Paris at the Concert Spirituel, he visited Verona and Venice to prepare his first operas, Ezio and Il matrimonio per concorso, for Carnival 1767. At about this time he married the buffa singer Maria Lavinia Guadagni (b Lodi, 21 Nov 1735; d Padua, c1790), sister of the celebrated castrato Gaetano Guadagni; both were employed by the King's Theatre, London, for which Alessandri composed the comic operas La moglie fedele (1768) and Il re alla caccia (1769). Although he must have visited Vienna for the première of his opera ...

Article

Christopher Larkin

German family firm of wind instrument makers. The business, located in Mainz, was established in 1782 by Franz Ambros Alexander (b Miltenberg, July 22, 1753; d Mainz, Dec 1, 1802), who was described in a Mainz Cathedral report of the same year as a wood-turner and wind instrument maker. Portraits depict Franz Ambros and his son Philipp (1787–1864) with clarinets. After his death, Alexander's business was continued by his widow and two of his sons, Claudius (1783–1816) and Philipp, later joined by a third, Kaspar Anton (1803–72). Under the direction of Philipp and Kaspar Anton the firm became known as Gebrüder Alexander, the name it still bears. Kaspar Anton's two sons Franz Anton (1838–1926) and Georg Philip (i) (1849–97) became the third generation to direct the company. Woodwind instruments, mainly for military use, were the firm's main products until the mid-19th century. By that time, however, band instrumentation had become more brass orientated; after Philipp's death in ...

Article

James L. Jackman

(b ?Milan, c1710; d Frankfurt, c1792). Italian cellist and composer. Although early sources (Eitner, Rudhart) claimed a Milanese origin for Aliprandi, the family has not been definitely traced. One of the numerous Italians who found careers north of the Alps, Aliprandi first appears in the records of the Bavarian court at Munich on 1 October 1731 as a chamber and court musician, with a yearly stipend of 1000 florins. On 22 August 1737 he succeeded G.B. Ferrandini as composer of chamber music; on 11 March 1744 he was promoted to Konzertmeister, with his salary increased to 1200 florins. By 1777 this amount had been reduced to 1105 florins, and in 1778 he retired with a pension of 500 florins. In 1791 he was living in Frankfurt; a petition by his son Bernardo Maria dated May 1793 indicates that he had died by then.

Aliprandi’s works for the Bavarian court opera include ...

Article

James L. Jackman

revised by Valerie Walden

(b Munich, Feb 5, 1747; d Munich, Feb 19, 1801). Italian cellist and composer, son of Bernardo Aliprandi. The young Bernardo probably studied with his father and, like many cellists of the era, would have been familiar with the viol. He began playing the cello for the Munich court between ...

Article

Roland Würtz and Paul Corneilson

(b Venice, 1754; d Ireland, after 1801). Italian soprano. She made her début in 1770 in Venice and in 1771 went from Florence to Mannheim, possibly on a recommendation by Casanova to the Mannheim court poet, Mattia Verazi. Holzbauer gave her singing lessons and employed her as second soubrette in the court opera (1771–5). She made her Mannheim début in 1771 in Piccinni's Gli stravaganti (Nerina) and appeared the following year at the palace theatre in Schwetzingen in Gassmann's L’amore artigiano (Angiolina) and Sacchini’s La contadina in corte (Tancia); Burney gave a glowing report of her. After 1778 she sang in Venice and Florence, in 1781 in London, making her début there in Anfossi’s I viaggiatori felici. On 20 July 1783 she was engaged by Bertholdi at a salary of 1000 ducats as prima donna buffa at the Dresden court opera, where Mozart heard her and placed her above Ferrarese (letter of ...

Article

Stephen Siek

In 

Article

David L. Crouse

revised by David W. Music

(b Tennessee, Oct 13, 1792; d Franklin, TN, Oct 18, 1859). American singing-school teacher and tunebook compiler. Nothing is known of his early activities or training, but by 1817 Carden was an established singing-school teacher in the Tennessee area. He taught a singing school in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1820, but probably returned to Tennessee shortly thereafter. In September 1822, Carden advertised a singing school in Nashville; he apparently continued to live in the Nashville area until 1850, when he moved to Williamson County (probably Franklin). His first tunebook, The Missouri Harmony, “published by the compiler” in St. Louis but printed in Cincinnati (1820, 2/1850/R 1975, 1994; modern revision, 2005), was the most popular fasola shape-note tunebook of the South and West until the Civil War, achieving at least 24 editions and reprints through 1857; however, Carden seems to have given up his interest in the book after the first edition, and subsequent issues were apparently the work of the Cincinnati printers. Carden procured shape-note music type and published two more tunebooks himself: ...

Article

Stephen Siek and R. Allen Lott

English family of publishers and musicians, active in the USA.

Stephen Siek

(b London, 1739; d Baltimore, Oct 20, 1819). Anglo-American music publisher. Descended from a long line of publisher-merchants, he was a highly skilled engraver who kept a shop in Holborn from about 1770 until his emigration to Baltimore in 1794, where he established a similar business. He formed a partnership with his son (2) Benjamin, who ran shops in both Philadelphia and New York, and they dominated the American music publishing industry until about 1800. The Carrs published European stage and instrumental works, but they also issued works by Alexander Reinagle, James Hewitt and other naturalized Americans. Much of their music was printed in serial format, such as the five-volume Musical Journal for the Piano Forte (1800–04), at the time the largest collection of secular music issued in America. On his death, Carr bequeathed the firm's holdings, which included over ...

Article

William C. Smith

revised by Peter Ward Jones

English family of music publishers, music sellers and instrument dealers. The firm was established in London.

(b 1750; d Edinburgh, Aug 21, 1821). He founded a business in 1783 at his private house, and from there issued his first publications, including a number of operas such as Shield’s Rosina and The Flitch of Bacon. A music catalogue of 1785 announced that the copyrights and plates of these and other works had recently been purchased from William Napier; at about the same time he also purchased plates and copyrights from Charles Bennett, once the property of John Welcker. In January 1786 he moved to premises previously occupied by Samuel Babb, whose trade stock and large circulating music library Dale purchased. In 1805 he took his son William into partnership and the firm became known as Joseph Dale & Son (or Joseph & William Dale). The partnership was dissolved in ...

Article

Marie Cornaz

(b Lille, June 8, 1731; d Brussels, July 30, 1804). French bookseller, printer and type founder, active in the southern Netherlands. Born into a family of printers, he was the son of Henri de Boubers and Marie Catherine Gavroy. He married Marie-Thérèse Joseph Panckoucke, a sister of the French bookseller Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, and later married Marie-Thérèse Joseph d'Audenarde. A bookseller in Dunkirk by about 1747, then a printer-bookseller in Liège from 1761, he established himself in Brussels in 1768 after two years of apprenticeship with Jean-Joseph Boucherie. On 18 October 1769 he opened the first permanent bookshop in the Théâtre de la Monnaie selling librettos of lyric works, some with music. De Boubers was also a type founder, at first in partnership with Mathias Rosart, son of the printer Jacques-François Rosart. He produced new printing type in 1779 which he sold to numerous printers in the Netherlands as well as to individuals, including the Prince de Ligne. De Boubers edited some occasional pieces, two of which were published for the inauguration of Charles de Lorraine's statue in Brussels in ...

Article

Peter Ward Jones

[Henry]

(b Lövånger, Swedish Lapland, 1720; d ?Stockholm, 1782). Swedish printer and publisheractive in London. After studies at Uppsala University and some years of clerical work he became a general book printer. About 1760 he developed his own version of Breitkopf’s improvements in printing music from movable type, using a system of 166 characters. He applied for a patent in 1763, and in the following year was granted a privilege for music printing in Sweden for 25 years. Lacking economic support, however, he left Sweden in 1767 and in November of that year arrived in London, where he began to issue music in his new type. After submitting his first work, an edition of Uttini’s Six Sonatas op.1, to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, he obtained a resolution from that body that his method of printing was superior and much cheaper than any that had been in use in Great Britain; he later printed this resolution as a preface to his edition of Sarti’s Three Sonatas....

Article

Vincent Duckles

revised by Michael Twyman

(b Neustadt, 1759; d Munich, Sept 18, 1818). German composer and lithographer. After early training in the seminary at Amberg, he moved to Munich, where he continued studies in music and philosophy and became a court musician. There he met Alois Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, initially when he was commissioned to compose some songs in connection with Senefelder's theatrical activities. In 1796 Gleissner was approached by Senefelder to make commercial use of his method of relief printing from stone for the publication of music. Gleissner was the first to see the possibilities of this and had his 12 neue Lieder produced by it the same year. This was the beginning of a partnership that lasted over 20 years. Between 1796 and 1798 Senefelder and Gleissner printed music from etched stones, but in 1798 or early in 1799 Senefelder developed a chemical method of printing from stone, for which he and Gleissner were granted a 15-year privilege on ...

Article

Marie Cornaz

(b Saint Samson, 1740; d Brussels, Dec 24, 1806). French bookseller, publisher and agent, active in Brussels. First a seller of engravings, he became one of the principal music sellers in Brussels from 1774. He published the works of Honauer, Pauwels and G. Ferrari, and made a request to the Milan engraver C.G. Barbieri to publish the works of C.-L.-J. André. Godefroy was also the Brussels agent for numerous Parisian publishers, his name appearing on the title-page of publications by La Chevardière (for the works of Anfossi and Paisiello), Sieber (Cramer, Haydn, Kammel), Durieu (Dalayrac), Heina (Eichner, J.A. Lorenziti, Vanhal), Mmes Le Menu and Boyer (J.H. Schröter), J.-P. Deroullède (B. Lorenziti, Pieltain, Anton Stamitz), Mondhare (Staes), Bailleux (Chevalier de Saint-Georges) and Camand (Jean Cremont). Being the Brussels agent for Heina, Godefroy was the first to distribute the music of Mozart in Brussels with a Parisian edition of the op.4 piano sonatas....

Article

Alec Hyatt King

(b London, 1736; d ?London, after 1789). English musician. He was educated at Westminster School and Trinity Hall, Cambridge. In January 1771 he was admitted to Lincoln's Inn. Little is known of his life, but he is important as having attempted to publish, between 1788 and 1790, the first complete edition of Purcell (see A.H. King: ‘Benjamin Goodison's Compete Edition of Purcell’, MMR, lxxxi, 1951, pp.81–9). Details of his elaborate plan are known from the five editions of his prospectus preserved in the Royal Music Library ( GB-Lbl ). Though Goodison was able to issue less than a dozen works, and his venture failed through lack of support, it forms a milestone in the progress of British appreciation of the range of Purcell's genius. It also ranks, at least by intention, with Arnold’s contemporary edition of Handel as the earliest of all the collected editions issued in any country....

Article

Roland Würtz

(bap. Mannheim, Feb 7, 1740; d Worms, Feb 15, 1810). German music publisher. By his own account he founded a firm of music engravers in Mannheim in 1768, but documentary evidence of his publications exists only from 1773. He soon incorporated a music shop into his publishing enterprise, buying new publications for it on his travels, especially in Paris; the publisher’s catalogue he printed for the Frankfurt book fair includes works by Gossec, Rigel, Hüllmandel and Boccherini. On 23 August 1776 Elector Carl Theodor granted his application for an exclusive patent for 20 years within the Palatinate, which was extended to include Bavaria in 1782. In view of the rapid rise of Götz’s publishing business, Mozart’s comment that he could not get his piano and violin sonatas printed in Mannheim (28 February 1778) is surprising. Eschstruth praised Götz’s prospectus (Musicalische Bibliothek, i, 1784), and he was soon able to open branches in Munich and Düsseldorf. His business began to suffer during the war which began in ...

Article

Gunter Hempel

German family of publishers and musicians. Johann Friedrich Hartknoch (b Goldap, 18 Sept 1740; d Riga, 1 April 1789), whose father trained him as a pianist, became the nine-year-old J.F. Reichardt’s teacher in 1761. He founded a book publishing firm in Mitau (now Jelgava) in 1763; a branch office, later established in Riga, soon became the main office, where he also published music, including Reichardt’s Vermischte Musicalien, vocal scores of Singspiele and concertos. A catalogue of the firm (c1785) shows a predominance of works by the Mannheim school and by Bach’s sons Carl Philipp Emanuel and Johann Christian; the firm also published important writings by Herder (a close friend of Hartknoch’s), Kant, Lomonossow, Karamsin, Knigge and Katharina II. Hartknoch’s son Johann Friedrich Hartknoch (b Riga, 15 July 1768; d Dresden, 7 Sept 1819) gave up the Riga business in 1798 and moved to Leipzig in ...

Article

François Lesure

(b Mieschitz [now Měšic], nr Prague, Nov 20, 1729; d Paris, Feb 28, 1790). Czech musician and publisher. He was in Paris from 1764, as cor de chasse to the Prince de Conti and later trompette de chevau-léger de la garde du roy, but received his discharge in 1775. From that date he was a teacher of the trumpet and hunting horn; from 1785 until his death he was a member of the orchestra of the Comédie Française.

In January 1773 he petitioned for a six-year privilege for the publication of Stamitz’s instrumental music. For at least ten years (1775–85), he published instrumental works, especially chamber music, by fellow Czechs (Vanhal, Fiala and Stamitz) and composers of the Mannheim school (Eichner and Schwindl). Heina was a good friend to Mozart in Paris, particularly at the time of his mother’s illness and death. He also published the first editions of seven of Mozart’s works, including three piano sonatas....

Article

Alexander Weinmann

(b Rothenburg am Neckar, May 12, 1754; d Vienna, Feb 9, 1812). Austrian music publisher and composer. He went to Vienna in 1768 to study law, but after qualifying, devoted his time to music, especially publishing and composing. As early as 1783, when Viennese music publishing was still in its infancy, he began to publish two series of symphonies in Lyons (printed by Guéra), and some quartets and duets for flute. On 24 January 1784 he announced in the Wiener Zeitung that he planned to publish all his musical works at his own expense and under his own supervision from Rudolf Gräffer’s bookshop. But in a large advertisement on 6 August 1785 he no longer mentioned Gräffer, having established a firm in his own name at his home. This advertisement gives a list of works which had already appeared as well as a new publishing programme of three different series, including orchestral and chamber music by Haydn, Mozart, Vanhal, Albrechtsberger, Pleyel, Miča, Ordonez and other foreign composers, besides Hoffmeister’s own works. Although he did not maintain his announced schedules, the business evidently flourished. Hoffmeister had connections with the Speyer publisher Bossler, whose firm acted as a kind of agent for Hoffmeister. Hence a series of announcements and some detailed reviews of works published by the Hoffmeister firm appeared in Bossler’s ...

Article

Lasairíona Duignan

revised by Barra R. Boydell

(d Dublin, 1813). Irish composer, music publisher and instrument maker. George Petrie considered him to have been the ‘most eminent British composer of military music in his time’. A Collection of Quick and Slow Marches, Troops &c. can be dated 1795–8. A square piano dated 1796 bears Holden’s name (possibly as seller rather than maker). In 1805, described as a ‘military music master and instrument maker’, he had premises in Arran Quay, Dublin. Nothing further is known about Holden’s apparent activities as an instrument maker. In 1806 he moved to Parliament Street, where he opened a music shop and began publishing, largely his own music although this continued to be issued by other Dublin publishers. On his death the business was continued by his widow until about 1818. Holden's publications included A Collection of Old Established Irish Slow and Quick Tunes (c1807); many of the airs may have been collected by his son Francis Holden. The elder Holden published two more collections of Irish music (issued periodically), collections of Welsh tunes, masonic songs and country dances, numbers of marches and quick steps, often dedicated to specific regiments and corps, and many individual songs and other instrumental pieces....

Article

Alexander Weinmann

[Huberti, Antoine]

(b c1722; d Jan 13, 1791). Engraver and music publisher of Flemish descent. He worked in Paris from 1756 as a musician at the Opéra and performer on the viola d’amore, but became most prominent for his activities as an engraver and music publisher. He appears to have published works by Wagenseil in 1756 but the earliest privilege for publishing music is dated 2 April 1757. From February 1770 he made his publications available in Vienna as well, and is credited with introducing engraving to Viennese music publishing. It was probably the bookseller Hermann Josef Krüchten who persuaded him to move to Vienna, where at that time copper engraving had been little practised; Huberty and his family moved there at the beginning of 1777 and opened a music engraving and printing business in the Alstergasse, ‘Zum goldenen Hirschen’. A detailed advertisement in the Wiener Diarium (11 April 1778...