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H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Nicholas Temperley

(b Swanton Morley, Norfolk, bap. Jan 15, 1571; d Amsterdam, ?1622–3). English minister and psalmodist. He attended Cambridge University from 1586 to 1591, leaving without a degree. He was expatriated as a ‘Brownist’ in 1593 and settled in Amsterdam, where he became ‘teacher’ of the Ancient Separatist Church in 1596; in 1610 he founded an Independent church, becoming minister of it himself. He took the Calvinist position on predestination. He was the author of a number of controversial religious tracts, annotations, and translations of scripture. Many consider him one of the finest Hebrew scholars of his day. His Book of Psalmes: Englished both in Prose and Metre, with Annotations (Amsterdam, 1612, 4/1644; music ed. in ISAMm, xv, Brooklyn, NY, 1981) contains all 150 psalms in a new metrical version, together with prose translations and annotations. 48 are provided with monophonic tunes (six melodies are used twice and one three times). 21 of the 40 tunes are drawn from the Continental Reformed tradition, and 16 are from English sources (including three of the newer, short variety such as ...


Yolande de Brossard

(b Dompierre, bap. Sept 12, 1655; d Meaux, Aug 10, 1730). French priest, theorist, composer, lexicographer and bibliophile. He was descended from a family founded by Antoine de Brossard (b c1286), a natural son of Charles de Valois (son of Philip the Bold) and Hélène Broschart, daughter of the king's treasurer. Sébastien was the last of a family of glass-blowers from lower Normandy. He studied at the Jesuit college in Caen and then attended that city's famous university, studying philosophy for two years and theology for three. When he turned to music, therefore, he was self-taught; he studied the lute, copying and composing pieces for the instrument. He took minor orders in 1675 and became a sub-deacon the next year, but the date when he became a priest is not known, nor is the date of his arrival in Paris. He was living there in ...


Argia Bertini

revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano

(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...


(b Amiens, Dec 18, 1610; d Paris, Oct 23, 1688). French historian, philologist and lexicographer. He was one of a celebrated group of learned 17th-century French scholars who founded modern historical and linguistic criticism. He was a student of law in Orléans and practised at the parliament in Paris from 1631 before returning to Amiens, where he was appointed treasurer in 1645. He left in 1668 for Paris, where he produced his major works: Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis (Paris, 1678; many subsequent edns, of which that by L. Favre, Paris, 1883–7/R, is current) and Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis (Lyons, 1688/R). The first of these is of particular importance to students of medieval music for the large number of musical terms and instruments it describes, derived largely from primary sources.

DBF (R. d'Amat) FétisBS [incl. list of musical terms found in the Latin glossary]...


Othmar Wessely

(b Heidenheim an der Brenz, Württemberg, Sept 26, 1576; d Strasbourg, Sept 6, 1635). German editor and music theorist. After attending the Protestant seminary schools at Blaubeuren and Bebenhausen he studied theology, Hebrew, astronomy and music at Tübingen University from 1595; he graduated in 1597. He deputized as court chaplain in Stuttgart in 1598–9 and from 1600 taught at the ducal ‘Stipendium’ at Tübingen. He became a deacon at Waiblingen in 1603, when he also brought the Reformation to the Benedictine monastery at Reichenbach an der Murg, and he was the first Protestant pastor there until he became pastor at Freudenstadt in May 1608; in 1609 he became pastor and special superintendent at Güglingen. In June 1611 he was appointed superintendent, preacher, inspector, and teacher of theology at the Protestant school for the nobility at Linz. It was there in 1612 that he engaged in the theological controversy with Kepler that led to the latter's excommunication from the Protestant church by the Württemberg consistory in ...


Fritz Feldmann

revised by Dorothea Schröder

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Feb 12, 1589; d Breslau, Dec 27, 1661). German music editor, publisher, composer and theorist. After studying theology at Wittenberg, he became a teacher at the Elisabeth Gymnasium at Breslau in 1617 and in the same year was appointed Lutheran Kantor and schoolmaster at Jauer (Jawor), Silesia. In 1629 Lutheranism was suppressed there and Catholic worship re-established, so he was obliged to return to Breslau, where he set up as a merchant. In 1633 he was appointed organist of St Elisabeth there, without, however, giving up his commercial activities. His organist’s post came to an end in 1649, when part of the church fell in and destroyed the organ; but he continued his business career and died prosperous.

It is not as a composer but as an assiduous editor and collector that Profe particularly deserves mention. His principal collection is the Geistliche Concerten und Harmonien...


David Mateer

revised by Ian Payne

(b ?1592; dc1635). English editor, composer and theorist. Although his parentage is still unknown, he was most probably a member of the Flintshire branch of the Ravenscroft famliy. His year of birth is implied by the prefatory poem to the Briefe Discourse (1614), which states that he was then aged 22; the claim that he was a son of Roger Ravenscroft, canon of Chester Cathedral, is not supported by this evidence, as the canon’s son was baptized in 1598 (not 1592 as is stated in The Family of Ravenscroft, London, 1915). If the early birth-date is correct, the Thomas ‘Raniscroft’ who was a chorister at Chichester Cathedral in 1594 cannot be identified with the composer. Ravenscroft was a chorister at St Paul’s Cathedral under Thomas Giles (both their names appear in a list of the choir included in the report of Bishop Bancroft’s visitation, ...


Patrizio Barbieri

(b Gunzing, near Lohnsburg am Inn, Germany, Nov 28, 1669, d Mainz, Germany, April 30, 1728). German priest, philosopher, editor of Latin works of Raymond Lull, and inventor of an enharmonic keyboard. While working at the court of Johann Wilhelm, Prince-Elector of the Palatinate, in Düsseldorf, Salzinger invented and built a keyboard (‘Tastatura nova perfecta’) accommodating the division of the octave into 31 equal parts. His enharmonic harpsichord is mentioned by Joseph Paris Feckler, who reports (1713) that a further two had been ordered: one for the Emperor in Augsburg, the other for the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in Florence. Details of this instrument appear in Salzinger’s ‘Revelatio secretorum artis’ (1721), which he published as an introduction to his edition of Lull’s Ars magna et major. This work tells that ‘the Most Serene Elector continuously used this harpsichord for music at court’, and that years earlier the construction of an organ with the same kind of keyboard had begun, only to be halted in ...


Anthony C. Baines

revised by Darryl Martin

(b London, 1664; d Spofforth, 1708). English writer on music . He was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge where he matriculated in 1683, becoming a minor Fellow in 1689 and major Fellow in 1690. He played a leading role in the early promotion of Cambridge University Press. He was Regius Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge from 1699 to 1704 when he moved to Spofforth, where he had a rectorship since 1700. He received his doctorate from Cambridge in 1705. His importance to music history derives from his manuscript GB-Och Music MS 1187 (formerly owned by Henry Aldrich) which provides copious information on instruments. The manuscript, which was probably written between 1690 and 1700, consists mainly of 250 numbered sheets on which are recorded details of instruments; much of the information was obtained first-hand from leading players and makers (including Gottfried Finger, John Banister (ii), James Paisible, John Shore and William Bull) and from Talbot’s examination and measurement of instruments provided by these men. Other pages record tunings and tablatures, or quotations from Praetorius, Mersenne and Kircher. The remainder of the manuscript, including sections on ancient Greek music, is in another hand....