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Article

Roger J.V. Cotte

[Ennal, Charles-Ernest]

(b Fockenhof, Kurland, Feb 14, 1722; d Paris, March 24, 1791). French dilettante, amateur violinist and composer, patron of the arts and instrument collector. A magnificent and very wealthy nobleman, he both amused and astounded his contemporaries. M. Audinot in his comic opera La musicomanie (1779), and possibly E.T.A. Hoffmann in his tale Die Serapionsbrüder (1819), attempted to evoke his strange personality, emphasizing its ridiculous nature.

At the death of his father, a landed nobleman, in 1747, Bagge inherited a large fortune which enabled him to study the violin in Italy with Tartini. By 1750 he had settled in Paris; in the following year he was awarded the title chambellan du Roi de Prusse (then Frederick II) and married the daughter of the Swiss banker Jacob Maudry. With Maudry's death in 1762 the very large inheritance proved a source of contention to the ill-matched couple and they soon separated. Bagge later attempted to gain possession of the inheritance of Mme Maudry, who had died in ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

[Fane, John; later 11th Earl of Westmorland]

(b London, Feb 3, 1784; d Wansford, Northants., Oct 16, 1859). English amateur musician. He was the eldest son of the 10th Earl of Westmorland, a Tory politician, and was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge (MA 1808), where he studied music under Charles Hague. His career was political, military and diplomatic. He was MP for Lyme Regis (1806–16). From 1803 to 1815 he served in various campaigns in the Napoleonic wars, at one time as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington (his wife’s uncle). He became a privy councillor in 1822, a major-general in 1825, lieutenant-general in 1838 and full general in 1854. He was British envoy at Florence from 1814 to 1830, resident minister at Berlin from 1841 to 1851 (acting as mediator between Prussia and Denmark in the Schleswig-Holstein dispute), and ambassador to the imperial court at Vienna from 1851 to 1855...

Article

Kaleb J. Koslowski and Caryl Clark

(b Bad Iburg near Osnabrück, 30 Oct 1668; d Hanover, 1 Feb 1705). Princess of Hanover, Electress of Brandenburg, and Queen in Prussia. Musical culture in and around Berlin flourished at the turn of the 18th century as a direct result of her activities as a musical patron, performer, composer, and collector.

Sophie Charlotte was the only daughter of Ernst August of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophie of the Palatinate. She was thrust into a lifestyle of courtly competition from an early age. The court at Osnabrück was relatively obscure, overshadowed by the wealthier and more politically prominent seat at Hanover ruled by her father’s brother, Johann Friedrich. Her mother determined to overcome this by immersing Sophie Charlotte in the arts. As a child she received instruction in singing, courtly dance, and religion, and in French, Italian, English, and Latin. During the 1670s and into the 1680s, the family visited Versailles, Venice, Brussels, and The Hague. These visits included recurring attendance at opera and ballet performances, and provided the foundation for Sophie Charlotte’s cultivation of music as a courtly and sociopolitical tool later at Hanover and Berlin....

Article

Frank Howes and Christina Bashford

(b Blackheath, London, July 11, 1847; d London, Jan 22, 1937). English amateur violinist, patron and lexicographer. Cobbett's efforts in the field of chamber music were important to the development of the English musical renaissance and to the cultivation and appreciation of chamber music in Britain; he is noted in particular for editing Cobbett's Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music (2 vols., London, 1929–30; rev. 2/1963 by C. Mason). In an autobiographical article, ‘The Chamber Music Life’, published in this encyclopedia, he related how he studied the violin with Joseph Dando, received a Guadagnini violin from his father and was fired with a lifelong enthusiasm for chamber music after hearing Joachim play at St James's Hall. From that time he played chamber music regularly at home, and also led several amateur orchestras, including the Strolling Players Orchestral Society. He became a connoisseur of violins and delighted in lending instruments from his fine collection to suitable players....

Article

E. Eugene Helm

revised by Derek McCulloch

[Friedrich II; Frederick the Great]

(b Berlin, Jan 24, 1712; d Potsdam, Aug 17, 1786). German monarch, patron of the arts, flautist and composer. His father, Friedrich Wilhelm I, was alarmed at his son’s early preference for intellectual and artistic pursuits over the military and religious. In spite of being supervised day and night and in the face of his father’s rages and corporal punishments, Frederick managed, partly through the complicity of his mother and his older sister Wilhelmina, to read forbidden books, to affect French dress and manners and to play flute duets with his servant. As a seven-year-old he was permitted to study thoroughbass and four-part composition with the cathedral organist Gottlieb Hayne. Wilhelmina, also musically talented, joined him in impromptu concerts. On a visit to Dresden in 1728 the prince was overwhelmed at hearing his first opera, Hasse’s Cleofide; there he also first heard the playing of the flautist J.J. Quantz, who soon thereafter began making occasional visits to Berlin to give Frederick flute lessons. The king tolerated such amusements for a while, but by ...

Article

(b 8/Dec 19, 1794; d Bogorodskoye, Kursk govt., 22 Oct /Nov 3, 1866). Russian music patron and cellist, father of Yury Nikolayevich Golitsïn. He served in the army (1810–32), fought in the 1812 war and was wounded at the Battle of Borodino. In his youth he spent some time in Vienna, acquiring there a sound knowledge of the Viennese Classics, and becoming an ardent admirer and collector of Beethoven’s music. He carried on a fruitful correspondence with Beethoven, starting in 1822 when he wrote to ask if he would compose ‘one, two or three new quartets’ for him. Beethoven accepted the commission, and produced (eventually) the quartets op.127, op.132 and op.130, all of which are dedicated to Golitsïn, as is the overture Die Weihe des Hauses. In 1823 Golitsïn was elected an honorary member of the St Petersburg Philharmonic Society, and it was on his initiative that the society gave the first performance of Beethoven’s ...

Article

Gary Galván

(b San Francisco, CA, Oct 18, 1873; d New York, NY, May 31, 1939). American lawyer, pianist, and music patron. The son of a shoe and boot dealer, Leventritt graduated from the University of California (A.B. 1894) and the New York Law School and practiced in San Francisco briefly before entering practice with his uncle, future Supreme Court Justice David Leventritt. He gained a reputation as a high profile and highly successful real estate and corporate attorney.

He supported the foundation of the Perolé String Quartet that comprised Joseph Colma, Max Hollander, Lilian Fuchs, and Julius Kahn and was active between 1927 and 1942. The Edgar M. Leventritt Foundation, Inc., established by his widow in 1939 funds an annual international competition for piano and violin players who have not appeared with a major orchestra. Distinguished winners of this prestigious award include Itzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zukerman, and Van Cliburn....

Article

Peter Wollny

(b Berlin, June 19, 1761; d Berlin, May 11, 1854). German harpsichordist, music collector and patron. She was a daughter of the Jewish banker Daniel Itzig (1723–99) and great-aunt of Mendelssohn. On 2 July 1783 she married the banker Samuel Salomon Levy (1760–1806). With her siblings, of whom Fanny von Arnstein (1758–1818) and Zippora Wulff (later Cäcilie von Eskeles, 1760–1836) were particularly well known as musical amateurs, she received a thorough musical education. She is said to have been a pupil of W.F. Bach at a later date, and she was certainly in contact with C.P.E. Bach, from whom she commissioned a harpsichord concerto. A number of contemporary documents mention her activity as a harpsichordist in private musical circles, for instance in the house of her brother-in-law Joseph Fliess. Later she frequently performed with the Ripienschule of the Berlin Sing-Akademie founded by C.F. Zelter. She was particularly interested in the music of the Bach family as well as the works of other Berlin composers (J.G. and C.H. Graun, Janitsch and Quantz), and is therefore one of the figures central to the appreciation of Bach in Berlin in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. She gave the Sing-Akademie considerable parts of her extensive collection of music, including autograph manuscripts by W.F. and C.P.E. Bach; after her death, some of the remaining items apparently came into the possession of A.W. Bach, and is now dispersed among many European and North American libraries....

Article

(b New York, NY, Nov 22, 1857; d Los Angeles, CA, Aug 23, 1956). American arts patron and pianist. She exhibited precocious talent at the piano as a young girl and traveled to Frankfurt, Germany, in 1880 for formal musical instruction. There she became the student of a brilliant, young American, Edward MacDowell. Their relationship quickly deepened and in July 1884 they married.

Devoted to furthering her husband’s composing career, Marian MacDowell witnessed firsthand the struggle for recognition that American composers faced at the turn of the 20th century. The couple believed in the creative potential of their homeland, and discussed turning their farm in Peterborough, New Hampshire, into a gathering place for creative artists, where others could enjoy the ideal working conditions that had inspired the composer’s own best work. Edward MacDowell fell ill before the vague plan could be realized. In 1907, the year before his death, Marian MacDowell founded the ...

Article

Gary Galván

(b Madera, CA, March 15, 1895; d New York, NY, Jan 24, 1971). American concert pianist and philanthropist. The daughter of merchant William Baird and music teacher Mina A. Smith, she studied with Morton Mason and made her debut on stage in 1903 at the University of California’s College of Music. She attended Occidental College in Los Angeles and the New England Conservatory of Music. She won the annual piano competition at the conservatory her senior year and embarked on a solo career with a repertoire comprising a mix of older works by Johannes Brahms, Fryderyk Chopin, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and Alessandro Scarlatti and modern works by Claude Debussy, Manuel de Falla, Vincent d’Indy, Charles Griffes, and Erik Satie. She toured the United States and Europe under her maiden name, despite a brief marriage to importer Adrian van Laar (whom she divorced). In 1930 she married Arthur M. Allen, a Rhode Island attorney, and soon retired from the stage. In ...

Article

[Matvey Yur′yevich ]

(b St Petersburg, 15/April 26, 1794; d Nice, March 5, 1866). Russian cellist and patron , brother of Michał Wielhorski. He pursued a military career, fought in the war of 1812, and retired in 1826 with the rank of colonel. He studied the cello with Adolph Meinhardt and Bernhard Romberg, and became well known as a performer both in Russia and abroad, partnering such eminent musicians as Liszt, Henselt and Vieuxtemps. From 1826 he lived with his brother in St Petersburg, maintaining the house as a centre of musical culture. A number of leading composers of the day dedicated works to him, including Anton Rubinstein (Third String Quartet), Mendelssohn (Second Cello Sonata) and Romberg (Seventh Cello Concerto). After his brother’s death in 1856 he continued his work as an impresario, and was instrumental in inaugurating the St Petersburg branch of the Russian Musical Society in 1859. His extensive music library and many of the important instruments in his private collection were donated to the St Petersburg conservatory....