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Article

Robert Shay

(b Westminster, London, Jan 1648; d Oxford, Dec 14, 1710). English scholar, composer and music collector. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford (after early training in mathematics at Westminster School), in 1662, receiving the BA, MA and DD degrees in 1666, 1669 and 1682 respectively. He took holy orders and was assigned the rectorate at Wem, Shropshire, but chose to remain at Christ Church, becoming a canon in 1681 and dean (a unique position in Oxford as head of both college and cathedral) in 1689, also serving as vice-chancellor of the University of Oxford, 1692–5. He was a leader of the Oxford resistance to James II's Catholic advances, and under William III he became one of the chief defenders of High Church practices, publicly opposing both the comprehension of non-Anglicans and revisions to the prayer book. He was an industrious and practically minded scholar, producing books on logic, heraldry and architecture, designing a number of Oxford buildings, serving as draftsman and engraver for the Oxford Almanacks, and producing a sizable body of compositions for the English cathedral service. His account of Greek music survives in manuscript (...

Article

Jocelyne Aubé

(b Barcelona, March 27, 1862; d Barcelona, March 31, 1908). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic. He studied composition with Antonio Nicolau and Anselmo Barba and piano with C.G. Vidiella in Barcelona and was music critic for various journals there, including La renaixensa, L'avenç and, from 1905 to 1908, El poble català. He published his Collecció de 6 melodies per a cant i piano and five Cansons per cant i piano (both Barcelona, 1887), which are settings of poems by Angel Guimerá, Francisco Matheu y Fornells, Apeles Mestres and Jacinto Verdaguer. He illustrated the latter volume himself, and some of his work was displayed at an exhibition of the Sociedad de Acuarelistas in Barcelona. A distinguished folklorist as well as a sensitive composer and skilful melodist, he collected Catalan folksongs and published arrangements of 23 of these in Cansons populars catalanas (Barcelona, 1891). He used native rhythms and melodies in his songs and piano pieces (among them ...

Article

(b Buenos Aires, April 13, 1913; d Buenos Aires, June 2005). Venezuelan-Argentine ethnomusicologist, folklorist and composer, wife of Luis Felipe Ramón y Rivera. She studied the piano under Rafael González (1923–31) and composition with Athos Palma (1928–33) at the Buenos Aires National Conservatory of Music, instrumentation with Villa-Lobos in Brazil (1937), anthropology (1938–40) and, with Carlos Vega, folklore and musicology (1938–44) at the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. She took the doctorate in musicology in 1967 at the Argentine Catholic University with a dissertation on Argentine folk music. She was an associate member of the Instituto Argentino de Musicología from 1938 to 1950. After working as the first professor of ethnomusicology at the Escuela Nacional de Danzas de Argentina (1950–52) she moved to Caracas, Venezuela, where she has held appointments as research fellow in folklore and ethnomusicology at the Instituto Nacional de Folklore de Venezuela (...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Tehran, Nov 7, 1915; d Los Angeles, March 5, 1994). Armenian musicologist, folklorist and composer. After moving to Yerevan in 1923 he studied composition at the Yerevan Conservatory. From 1944 he taught harmony at the conservatory and completed a second degree at the Institute of Art of the Armenian Academy of Sciences with Kushnaryov, 1945–8. In 1951 he began taking part in folklore expeditions around Armenia and in 1955 he completed his dissertation at the conservatory on Armenian neumatic (khazer) notation. He joined the staff of the Institute of Arts in 1956 and was appointed professor in 1962 at the conservatory, where he also served intermittently as head of the music theory department until 1991. He was made an Honoured Representative of the Arts of Armenia in 1961. He participated in many congresses both within and outside the former Soviet Union, and was highly regarded as a teacher....

Article

Roger J.V. Cotte

[Ennal, Charles-Ernest]

(b Fockenhof, Kurland, Feb 14, 1722; d Paris, March 24, 1791). French dilettante, amateur violinist and composer, patron of the arts and instrument collector. A magnificent and very wealthy nobleman, he both amused and astounded his contemporaries. M. Audinot in his comic opera La musicomanie (1779), and possibly E.T.A. Hoffmann in his tale Die Serapionsbrüder (1819), attempted to evoke his strange personality, emphasizing its ridiculous nature.

At the death of his father, a landed nobleman, in 1747, Bagge inherited a large fortune which enabled him to study the violin in Italy with Tartini. By 1750 he had settled in Paris; in the following year he was awarded the title chambellan du Roi de Prusse (then Frederick II) and married the daughter of the Swiss banker Jacob Maudry. With Maudry's death in 1762 the very large inheritance proved a source of contention to the ill-matched couple and they soon separated. Bagge later attempted to gain possession of the inheritance of Mme Maudry, who had died in ...

Article

Ferenc Bónis

(b Széplak, April 7, 1799; d Mainz, Oct 4, 1854). Hungarian composer, theatre director and collector of folksongs. He came from a Hungarian noble family and embarked on a career in the civil service; it was not until 1829 that he first appeared on the musical scene, when he and Lajos Menner founded and became directors of the first Pest singing school. Bartay was one of the first to publish Hungarian folksongs: in 1833–4 he published a two-volume collection Eredeti nép-dalok klavir-kísérettel (‘Original folksongs with piano accompaniment’), and in 1834 he brought out one of the earliest Hungarian books on music theory, Magyar Apollo.

In 1837 his comic opera Aurelia, oder Das Weib am Konradstein had its première at the Pest Town Theatre, and in 1839 his comic opera Csel (‘Ruse’) was first performed at the Pest Hungarian Theatre as Ferenc Erkel's benefit performance (Erkel later composed variations on themes from this opera). Bartay was director of the National Theatre in ...

Article

(b Paris, April 11, 1791; d Niort, Deux Sèvres, Dec 21, 1863). French composer, folk music collector, musical philanthropist and writer on music. He studied the violin with Rodolphe Kreutzer and composition with Benincori before entering the Paris Conservatoire in Méhul’s class. In 1810 he won the Prix de Rome, but instead of going to Italy as the prize required, he settled at Niort and became engaged to Françoise Caroline Rouget de Gourcez, whom he married in 1816. He nonetheless continued to meet the other requirements of the prize, including the submission of both sacred and secular compositions which show him to have been a well-trained though conservative musician. In 1818, the year after Méhul’s death, Beaulieu wrote his most ambitious work, a Requiem in his teacher’s memory.

Beaulieu’s contributions to musical life in Western France were substantial. In 1827 he founded a philharmonic society in Niort to perform vocal music from the 16th century to the 18th, as well as modern works. Eight years later he established a more serious organization, the Association Musicale de l’Ouest; it sponsored annual concert series in Niort, Poitiers, La Rochelle and elsewhere that involved regional professionals and amateurs in large-scale choral works, as well as chamber and orchestral repertory. Under its aegis Mendelssohn’s ...

Article

Sigurd Berg

(b Copenhagen, March 2, 1801; d Copenhagen, Nov 8, 1880). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer. He began composing and playing the flute while still in school. After his matriculation he studied law for a time, but influenced by the composer C.E.F. Weyse he soon dedicated himself to music and attracted attention in 1823 with a cantata for the 200th anniversary of Regensen, the students' college in Copenhagen. Over the next few years he composed several more cantatas as well as incidental music for the Royal Theatre. From 1838 he was organist at the Trinitatis Kirke, and from 1843 singing master at the metropolitan school. He held both posts until his death; they led him to an intensive occupation with church and school singing. He composed a notable set of hymn melodies, many of which are still used in the Danish Church, and edited many collections of partsongs for schools, containing several of his own compositions. He also made an important collection of Danish and foreign folksongs and melodies. In ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Lugoj, 20 March/April 2, 1877; d Bucharest, Dec 19, 1968). Romanian composer, folklorist and administrator. He studied privately in Lugoj with Josif Czegka and Sofia Vlad-Rădulescu, in Blaj with Iacob Mureşianu, in Sibiu with Hermann Kirchner and in Braşov with Paul Richter. Extremely active in the musical life of Romania, he participated in the foundation of the Romanian Opera, the Romanian National Theatre (1919), the Dima Conservatory, Cluj (1920), the Society of Romanian Composers (1920) and the Astra Conservatory, Braşov (1928); during this period he directed the opera houses in Cluj and Bucharest. He collected more than 2000 folksongs, recorded on 214 cylinders, and made use of them in his ten books of Doine şi cântece poporale (‘Doinas and Other Folksongs’) and in eight books of instrumental pieces published as Jocuri populare româneşti (‘Romanian Folkdances’); he also published a scholarly collection, ...

Article

(b Avignon, France, May 18, 1854; d Versailles, France, May 20, 1933). Organist, composer, collector, and writer on musical instruments. Born a count into an old Norman family, he studied organ with Gigout in Paris in the late 1880s and was admitted to the Académie des Sciences Morales, des Lettres et des Arts de Versailles in 1891. Beginning in 1897, de Bricqueville played the organ in the chapel of the palace of Versailles for about 20 years. Writing as a music critic, he enthusiastically promoted Wagner but also appreciated earlier French opera. His studies of historical instruments, instrument collecting, and music iconography, while largely superseded by later research, offer valuable insight to the state of scholarship at the turn of the 20th century. He described his private collection of instruments (mainly European of the preceding three centuries) in three published catalogues, the last being Catalogue sommaire de la collection d’instruments de musique anciens formée par le Cte de Bricqueville...

Article

David Pinto

(b London, c1608; bur. Eydon, Northants., June 8, 1691). English music collector, copyist and amateur composer. On the death of his father in 1621 he was adopted by his wealthy uncle, the merchant taylor John Browne. By the 1630s he was a property-owner in Northamptonshire. In 1636 he was appointed Clerk of the Parliaments, a post that was initially a sinecure, but which led to notoriety at the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642, when he adhered to the parliamentary cause. His office was abolished under the Commonwealth in 1649, but he was restored from 1660 until his death.

Significant as a political archivist, Browne was an astute music lover whose collection is preserved almost entire in Christ Church, Oxford, as part of the music bequeathed by Henry Aldrich. His descendants retained some concordant manuscripts into the 20th century, alongside his parliamentary papers. The collection provides a rare view of Stuart Puritan London up to ...

Article

Viorel Cosma and Owen Wright

[Demetrius]

(b Silişteni-Fălciu, Moldavia, Oct 26, 1673; dDmitrievka, Russia, Aug 21, 1723). Prince of Moldavia (1683, 1710–11), Romanian scholar, encyclopedist, composer, folklorist and theorist. He started his musical studies under Jeremia Cacavelas in Iaşi and continued them in Istanbul with Kemani Ahmed and Angeli. In the Ottoman capital he compiled a treatise on the theory of Turkish music which used an innovative system of musical notation based on the Arabic alphabet. At the end of this treatise, Edvar-i musiki (‘Textbook of music’), he added notations of some 350 instrumental pieces in the peşrev and semai forms, a few of them his own compositions. These notations provide an important comprehensive record of the late 17th-century Ottoman instrumental repertory.

Back in his country, as Prince of Moldavia (1710–11), he continued his ethnographic and folk music studies, recorded in Descriptio Moldaviae (1716). Appointed councillor to the Tsar of Russia, Peter I, Cantemir settled in Moscow. But he continued his musical activities, compiling (in Romanian) ...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill

revised by Rosemary Williamson

(von Ahn)

(b Newcastle upon Tyne, May 19, 1878; d Great Missenden, Nov 2, 1958). English collector and historian of instruments and composer. He was educated in Hanover (1892) and as a Macfarren scholar at the Royal Academy of Music (1893–1902, ARAM 1902), where he studied composition with Corder. After serving as assistant music master at Winchester College (1909–22), he returned to the RAM in 1922 as professor of harmony and counterpoint, becoming a Fellow of the RAM in the same year; he held the professorship until 1940.

Carse’s early compositions include an orchestral prelude to Byron’s Manfred, a dramatic cantata, The Lay of the Brown Rosary and two symphonies; his later works, for student orchestras and beginners, are light, tuneful and individual, and ideally suited to their purpose as teaching material. His reputation, however, rests on his study of the history of instruments and the orchestra, and on his collection of some 350 old wind instruments, which he gave to the Horniman Museum, London, in ...

Article

Taisiya Shcherbakova

(b Dzhalal-Oglï, nr Tbilisi, Georgia, 9/May 21, 1869; d Minsk, Dec 27, 1964). Belarusian folklorist and composer. He completed his studies in composition with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Tbilisi Music College (1892), and then worked as a music teacher in Baku and from 1903 in the north-west region of Russia (in the towns of Kovno, Vil′no and Mstislavl′). He headed amateur societies and choirs, and began his work as a folklorist. His first volume of 53 Belarusian songs was published in Vil′no in 1910. His opera Osvobozhdyonnïy trud (‘Emancipated Labour’) was written in Mstislavl′ in 1922 and was staged there by amateurs in the same year.

After 1935 Churkin lived permanently in Minsk and devoted himself to folklore. He recorded around 3000 Belarusian, Lithuanian, Polish, Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaidjani folksongs. These served as sources for many of his instrumental works – three sinfoniettas (1925, 1949...

Article

Josiane Bran-Ricci

revised by Hervé Lacombe

(b Naples, Sept 15, 1808; d Paris, March 19, 1866). French composer, curator and teacher. His paternal grandfather was a wind instrument maker at Lyons and his father a professional horn player who played principal horn at the Teatro S Carlo, Naples, and led the military band for Murat (King of Naples during the First Empire) in the early 19th century. As a result of political and military events at the end of the Empire, the Clapisson family returned to France and settled in about 1815 in Bordeaux, where the father was appointed principal horn at the Grand Théâtre and Louis began his musical studies, particularly of the violin. Soon he was making concert tours in the south of France. On returning to Bordeaux he studied harmony and became a first violin in the Grand Théâtre orchestra. He then went to Paris, entering the Conservatoire on 18 June 1830...

Article

Owain Edwards

(bap. London, July 18, 1680; d London, March 7, 1748). English violinist, composer and collector. His earliest compositions were songs and incidental music for the Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre, where he also played. In 1705 he was engaged to play in the orchestra at the new Queen’s Theatre in the Haymarket, where the following year the semi-opera The British Enchanters, or No Magick like Love, with music mostly by Corbett, had 11 performances. He was greatly admired as a solo performer, often being billed as the chief attraction at the benefit concerts of colleagues in London. He also appeared further afield: he played at Nottingham during race week (1707 and 1709) and at York during Assize week (1709). An instinctive showman, Corbett emphasized the unusual in his concerts and in his own compositions; the viola d’amore, archlute and mandolin made appearances at his benefit concerts (...

Article

Andrew D. McCredie

revised by Samantha Owens

(b Sydney, Australia, April 16, 1887; d Brisbane, Australia, July 31, 1959). Australian conductor, composer, and music collector. He studied with Arthur Mason and Gordon Lavers in Sydney. In 1912 he was appointed organist and choir director at Christ Church Anglican Cathedral and conductor of the choral society in Grafton, New South Wales. After war service he went to London for further study with Frederick Bridge, R.R. Terry, and Charles W. Pearce. He returned to Australia in 1919 and settled in Brisbane, where he served as organist and choirmaster at St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church (1919–32) and the Anglican churches of St Thomas at Toowong (1933) and All Saints, Wickham Terrace (1933–41). He directed the University of Queensland’s Musical Society (1920–30), an association that culminated in what was believed to have been the first Bach Festival in the southern hemisphere, held in ...

Article

Jonas Westover

(b Brookline, MA, c1875; d Boston, MA, c1959). American collector, arranger, and civil engineer. He is responsible for one of the largest collections of sheet music in America. While growing up in Brookline he learned to play piano and organ under b.j. Lang, and there is some evidence that he also wrote arrangements of sacred music. This led to a long amateur engagement at Boston’s Sacred Heart Cathedral, where he led the choir and played the organ. “Benedixisti domine” by Bernhard Klein is one of Driscoll’s few remaining arrangements; the other extant editions or arrangements are of sacred pieces. By the 1890s Driscoll was already amassing material for his ever burgeoning collection, always looking for the perfect copy of any rare number. Well known for his sharp bargaining and compulsive habits, he refused to relinquish the search for the most complete collection possible. The James Francis Driscoll Collection of American Sheet Music at the Newberry Library in Chicago, IL, stores around 84,000 pieces of music dating from the 1770s until Driscoll’s death in ...

Article

Bruce Alan Brown

(Pio Francesco Antonio Maria)

(b Genoa, April 27, 1717; d Padua, Oct 15, 1794). Italian diplomat, theatre director, librettist and art collector, and one of the principal catalysts of reform in 18th-century opera and ballet. The francophilia that coloured nearly all Durazzo's theatrical endeavours was largely the result of his birth into a noble Genoese family (of Albanian origin) with a long history of commercial and political dealings with France. The Durazzos (who produced several doges, including Giacomo's older brother Marcello) were active in Genoa's theatrical life, notably as proprietors of the Teatro del Falcone. Following his inscription into the nobility in 1744, Giacomo was entrusted with several commercial and diplomatic missions to France, during one of which, in 1748, he and his compatriot Agostino Lomellini conceived a plan to rework Quinault and Lully's Armide as an Italian opera on reformed principles. As versified by Migliavacca and set by Traetta, this project was realized in Vienna in ...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...