(b Brailov, Ukraine, Oct 6, 1903; d Moscow, Sept 30, 1988). Russian musicologist and teacher. He graduated from the Kiev Conservatory, having studied the piano with Boleslav Yavorsky, Felix Blumenfeld and Grigory Kogan, and music theory with Yavorsky and A.A Al′shvang. From 1923 to 1926 he lectured on musicology at the Kiev Conservatory after which he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where he was head of one of its music theory departments (1936–42) and professor from 1939. While teaching at the conservatory he obtained the Kandidat degree (1931) and the doctorate (1958). He was also active in the Union of Soviet Composers and was awarded the Order of the Red Labour Banner (1947), the Order of Lenin (1953) and the title of Honoured Worker of Art of the RSFSR (1966). He trained many prominent Russian musicologists, including I.A. Barsova and Grigor′yeva, and composers, such as Denisov, Eshpay and Peyko....
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Grigory L′vovich Golovinsky
(b Berlin, Oct 11, 1922; d Oct 31, 2018). Harpsichord maker and developer of the kit harpsichord, of German birth. He came to the United States in 1938, studied psychology at Queens College, New York (BA 1949), and continued with postgraduate work. But his musical interests led him to study piano technology. He was never apprenticed to a harpsichord builder, but, having to deal with harpsichords in the course of his work as a piano technician, he determined in 1954 to build one for his own use in amateur chamber music playing. It was a somewhat simplified one-manual model with little claim to historical authenticity. He continued to produce similar harpsichords, which found a ready market. In 1960 he introduced a kit version in response to the evident demand for a basic inexpensive harpsichord. The kit was designed for production on a small industrial scale, and by the end of ...
( fl 1678–85). Italian soprano . She sang in Venice in 1678 in Carlo Pallavicino’s Vespasiano for the opening of the Teatro S Giovanni Grisostomo. Thereafter her name appears only in librettos of Neapolitan productions, including the first performances of Alessandro Scarlatti’s Aldimiro, o vero Favor per favore and Psiche, o vero Amore innamorato...
J.A. Fuller Maitland
revised by Anthony C. Baines and Mary Térey-Smith
[chiufolo, ciufolo] (It.)
In Italy a name for any small duct flute or whistle. It was first described in the 14th century (Marcuse, 1964) as having two front finger-holes and a rear thumb-hole (it thus falls into the normal pattern for three-hole pipes; see Pipe and tabor). It was traditionally carved from boxwood and had a conical bore. The narrow compass obtainable from the three finger-holes could be extended to over two octaves by stopping and half-stopping the bell with the palm of the hand, and by overblowing. In Sicily the term applies to a larger duct flute with a wide-beak mouthpiece and six finger-holes.
A larger, much improved zuffolo (lowest note c′′) appeared during the early 17th century. According to Van der Meer this ‘was also called flautino and flauto piccolo in works by Monteverdi, Praetorius, Schütz, Schein and Telemann; Keiser alone maintains the original name’. The Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, houses a few three-hole duct flutes, some with ...
(Ger.: ‘pull’, ‘draught’, ‘stress’, ‘procession’, ‘progression’)
In Schenkerian analysis (see Analysis, §II, 4), a conjunct diatonic succession of notes, encompassing a certain interval, by which movement from one pitch, register or part to another is established; hence one of the chief methods of Prolongation of a basic musical structure. As a technical term, Zug is usually translated as ‘progression’ or, more precisely, as ‘linear progression’. In identifying these progressions in Schenkerian analyses, the interval forms part of the name, thus Terzzug, Quartzug, Quintzug, Sextzug, Septzug, Oktavzug (‘3rd-progression’, ‘4th-progression’, ‘5th-progression’ etc.).
At the most basic level of an analysis, the background Layer, the function of a Zug is to connect the fundamental upper voice ( Urlinie) with an inner voice. In ex.1, for instance, the Terzzug d″–c″–b′ delays the completion of the Urlinie movement to c″. Because this progression prolongs a note in the Urlinie itself, it is called a Terzzug erster Ordnung (‘3rd-progression of the highest order’)....
Zug ‘pull’ ‘draught’ ‘stress’ ‘procession’ ‘progression’: Ex.1
Zug ‘pull’ ‘draught’ ‘stress’ ‘procession’ ‘progression’: Ex.2
Frans van Rossum
(b Gouda, Sept 23, 1964). Dutch composer. He studied at the Rotterdam Conservatory with Philippe Boesmans and Klaas de Vries, and in Tanglewood with Knussen and Foss. In 1989 he won the Koussevitzky Composition Prize with Fishbone, which launched his international career. While being trained as a classical pianist, he played the guitar in punk bands, and his chameleon-like musical output reflects a natural affinity with the complex compositional procedures of serious music and the simple directness of rock music. Though Zuidam uses a multiplicity of genres and styles, both Western and non-Western, he alludes to his models rather than borrowing from them literally. In his music, which is vigorous and entertaining, rhythm plays a paramount role because ‘it forges the link between reason and emotion’. The communicative simplicity and formal transparency of his music stems from a desire for clear musical argument but involves elaborate transformational techniques. These facilitate the music’s change of perspective by shifting quickly but smoothly between disparate elements and emotions. Zuidam’s talents for twisting the obvious and predictable are considerable. In a way, his music reflects on ordinary perceptions. It is a critique in disguise, seriously humorous and biting, even as it pretends to be sentimental or downright vulgar. His opera ...
revised by Jonas Westover
(b Cambridge, MA, Sept 25, 1944). American Flutist. She studied English at Barnard College (1962–4) before attending the Juilliard School, where she studied flute with Julius Baker (1964–6). In 1968 she married the violinist Pinchas Zukerman (they divorced in 1985). Under the sponsorship of the Young Concert Artists Auditions, which she won in 1970, she made her Town Hall debut in 1971. Her most regular musical partner has been Zukerman, whom she has joined in concerts with the English Chamber Orchestra (among others), occasional recitals, and a number of recordings. In 1976 she collaborated with the flutist Jean-Pierre Rampal in a concert at Carnegie Hall. She has also performed with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, the Spoleto Festival (Italy), the Mostly Mozart Festival (New York), the Edinburgh Festival, and a wide range of orchestras. She has served as the artistic director of the Vail Valley Music Festival since ...
(b Tel-Aviv, July 16, 1948). Israeli violinist of Polish descent. His father, also a violinist, encouraged a childhood instinct for music, and at eight he entered the Tel-Aviv Academy of Music, where he studied with Ilona Feher, a pupil of Hubay. In 1961 he was heard by Isaac Stern and Pablo Casals, on whose recommendations he received scholarships enabling him to enter the Juilliard School of Music, New York, with Stern as his legal guardian. There Zukerman studied with Ivan Galamian and extended his interest to the viola, the better to participate in chamber ensembles. He appeared at the 1966 Spoleto Festival in Italy, and the next year was joint winner of the Leventritt Memorial Competition. The resulting solo engagements throughout North America were supplemented by deputizing for an indisposed Stern, and since Zukerman’s New York début at Lincoln Center in 1969 he has toured frequently in Europe. His British concert début was at the ...
(b Brooklyn, NY, 22 Oct 1943; d Hong Kong, 6 June 2017). American violinist and conductor. He started music lessons when he was three and studying the violin at the age of four. Two years later he first played in public, and at seven became a student of Galamian. He made his first orchestral appearance in 1953 with the New Haven SO, and a formal début recital at Carnegie Hall in 1956. He specialized in 20th-century music and had complete command of new and traditional virtuoso techniques. He gave the premières of concertos by Sessions (for violin, cello, and orchestra), Wuorinen (for amplified violin and orchestra), and the Scottish composer Iain Hamilton, and of works by Babbitt, Carter, Crumb, Wuorinen, and others. From 1963 to 1976 he performed frequently with the pianist Gilbert Kalish, with whom he was associated in a repertory of over 300 works. One of the original Creative Associates at the Center for Creative and Performing Arts, SUNY, Buffalo, in ...
[Z, Bojan ]
(b Belgrade, Feb 2, 1968). Serbian pianist and composer. He discovered jazz in 1984 and quickly became one of the busiest pianists in Belgrade. After gaining a scholarship to the University of Michigan (1986) he spent time with Clare Fischer, under whose influence he renewed his approach to the piano. In the course of his service in the Serbian army (1987) he directed an ethnic music orchestra, and this supplied further inspiration for his music making. In 1988 he settled in Paris, where in the early 1990s he played in Noël Akchoté’s groups Trash Corporation and Unit and in 1992 founded Quartet Z. He joined Henri Texier’s Azur Quartet (1992) and Sonjal Septet (1996), played in Sylvain Beuf’s quartet, formed an international group including, most notably, Julien Lourau, and appeared at the festival Banlieues Bleues (1997), where he presented ...
Zulu isithontolo (mouth-resonated musical bow)
(b Cereté, July 18, 1945). Colombian composer. He completed his undergraduate studies in composition at the National University of Colombia (1970) and was granted a scholarship to study in Paris with Nadia Boulanger, where he twice won the Grand Prix de Composition (1971, 1973) and experimented with electronic techniques under the supervision of Pierre Schaeffer. He returned to Colombia (1973), then lived in New York (1978–80), working as a composer and arranger for Eddie Palmieri and his Fania All Stars Orchestra. After working from 1982–6 with the Bogotá PO, he was cultural attaché of the Colombian Embassy in Bonn (1986–90); during this period he travelled extensively in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas, lecturing about his music and giving concerts. He returned to the USA in 1991.
As a composer Zumaqué was committed to bridging the gap between erudite music and urban and traditional music. His first CD, ...
Craig H. Russell
(b c1678; d Antequerra, Valle de Oaxaca, Dec 21, 1755). Mexican composer and organist. He probably entered the service of Mexico City Cathedral in about 1690, and quickly established a reputation as a prodigy. His name first appears in a document dated 25 May 1694, when the cathedral chapter granted him financial assistance after his father’s untimely death and arranged for him to study the organ with the cathedral’s principal organist, José de Ydiáquez, and composition with the maestro de capilla, Antonio de Salazar.
In honour of the birth of Prince Luis, Zumaya wrote a play, Rodrigo, which was staged on 25 August 1707, possibly with music also by Zumaya. The following year he became second organist at the cathedral, and in 1710, despite protestations from the older and more experienced Francisco de Atienza, he was appointed interim maestro de capilla and took on some of the ailing Salazar’s teaching duties at the ...
(b Oppach, April 9, 1850; d Munich, Sept 4, 1903). German conductor and composer. Trained at the teachers’ seminary at Bautzen (where he also received a thorough musical education), Zumpe taught in the local school at Weigsdorf in 1870–71, then went as a teacher to Leipzig, where he furthered his musical studies with Tottmann. He turned to music completely when Wagner called him to Bayreuth in 1872 (an association which became the main influence in his development) to assist in the completion of the Ring score. As a conductor he travelled widely throughout Germany and held important positions in Stuttgart (1891), Schwerin (1897) and Munich (1895 and 1900). He also visited London (conducting Wagner at Covent Garden in 1898), Odessa, Madrid and St Petersburg. An energetic and intelligent conductor, he was regarded in his day, especially in Wagner’s music, as comparable to Richter, Mottl and Levi. As a composer he was strongly influenced by Wagner; his operas and operettas enjoyed a certain measure of success during his lifetime. At his death he left an unfinished opera, ...
[Johann Christoph ]
(b Fürth, nr Nuremburg, June 14, 1726; bur. London, Dec 5, 1790). English harpsichord and piano maker of German origin. He may have worked for the Silbermanns and was the most famous of the German keyboard instrument makers known as the ‘12 Apostles’, who emigrated to London about the time of the Seven Years War. Zumpe worked briefly for Burkat Shudi, and married Elizabeth Beeston on 3 December, 1760 before setting up his own shop ‘at the sign of the Golden Guittar’ in Princes Street, Hanover Square, in 1761. There he probably made a few harpsichords, before commencing his successful square piano business. Fétis (1851) wrote that his first lessons were on a Zumpe piano dated 1762. J.C. Bach probably acted as an agent for Zumpe pianos, which in 1771 cost 18 guineas each.
An early Zumpe square, dated 1766, is preserved in the Württembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart. It has a compass ...
Zumpe-style single action from a 1775 square piano inscribed as by Jacob and Abraham Kirkman