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Alan R. Thrasher

(‘sitting chime’) [qing]

Bowl-shaped resting bell of the Han Chinese. The bell is hammered out of bronze and constructed in various sizes, medium-sized instruments ranging from 10 to 15 cm in diameter. The zuoqing rests on a cushion and is struck at the rim with a padded beater. A 9th-century Buddhist bell (24 cm in diameter, 19 cm deep) found in a Tang dynasty site is one of earliest of this type reported. The scholar Chen Yang, in his treatise Yueshu (c1100), called this type a bronze bowl (tongbo) but the name zuoqing (or qing) is now most common. Used in Buddhist temples, the bell is usually paired with a muyu (‘wooden fish’) of a similar size, and struck to punctuate the chanting of monks and nuns.

Liu Dongsheng and others, eds.: Zhongguo yueqi tujian [Pictorial Guide to Chinese Instruments] (Ji’nan, 1992), 85 only.

See also...


Bojan Bujic

(b Schrötten, nr Hengsberg, July 27, 1734; d Kamnik, April 11, 1810). Slovenian composer. In 1749 he was mentioned in the register of the Jesuit University in Graz. In 1757 he went to Kamnik near Ljubljana as a music teacher and by 1773 he was referred to as Civis chori regens. He is likely to have taken part in the activities of the Accademische Confoederation Sanctae Caeciliae, a church music society which existed at Kamnik between 1731 and 1784. Some time during the 1780s he wrote the opera Belin, which would make it the first opera of its kind in Slovene, and among the first to be written in any Slavonic language. Zupan’s surviving works show that he was close to the style of the mid-18th-century South German School of church music.

all extant works pubd in MAMS, xxxvi–xxxviii (Ljubljana, 2000)


Bojan Bujic

revised by Vjera Katalinic

(b Šibenik, Croatia, July 21, 1925; d Zagreb, Croatia, March 18, 2004). Croatian musicologist and composer . He studied romance and Slavonic languages at the University of Zagreb, graduating in 1950, and musicology at the Academy of Music in Zagreb, where he graduated in 1953. In 1965 he was awarded the doctorate at the University of Ljubljana with a dissertation on Vatroslav Lisinski. He also studied composition in Ljubljana under L.M. Škerjanc (graduated in 1971). He taught in schools in Zagreb (1950–61) and at the Zagreb Pedagogic Academy (1961–78); from 1978 until his retirement in 1990, he taught in the department of musicology at the Zagreb Academy of Music. From 1971 he was a full member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. In his early career his main interest was Croatian Romantic music, and later he concentrated on Croatian music of the 16th and 17th centuries. He has been awarded the Prize of the City of Zagreb for his extensive study of the life and works of Lisinski, several prizes by the Varaždin Baroque Evenings Festival for his musicological work, and by the town of Šibenik for his entire output (...


Barbara A. Peterson

revised by Theresa Koenig

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Nov 14, 1932). American Composer. He studied with Vincent Persichetti at the Juilliard School (BS 1956, BM 1957). He received a Fulbright grant that enabled him to study with Karl Schiske at the Vienna Academy of Music (1958–9) and with Michael Gottfried Koenig at the University of Utrecht, spending a total of five years in Europe. Additionally, he studied with Aaron Copland, with Otto Luening, and at Columbia University, where he learned about electronic music. Zupko was a Ford Foundation/MENC composer-in-residence in Lubbock, Texas (1961–2), and then in Joliet, Illinois (1966–7). After these residencies ended, Zupko taught theory and founded the first Electronic Music Studio in Chicago at the Chicago Musical College at Roosevelt University (1967–71). From 1971 to 1997, he was a member of the faculty at Western Michigan University, where he taught composition and theory and founded and directed the Studio for Electronic and Computer Music. Zupko’s music first came to international prominence when his Violin Concerto won first prize in the Premio Città di Trieste in ...



Ferdinand J. de Hen


Jonathan P.J. Stock

(b Beijing, July 24, 1927). Chinese composer. His career is representative of those of a generation of Chinese composers and performers. Displaced several times during the war with the Japanese, he was educated in Beijing, Wuhan and Chongqing; he graduated from the Nanjing National Music College in 1947 and the Central Conservatory in 1950. After briefly teaching composition at the Central Conservatory (1952–3), Wu won a scholarship to study with Y. Messner at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow. He returned to the Central Conservatory in Beijing in 1958, becoming its head in 1982. During the Cultural Revolution he was chief music critic for the daily newspaper Guangming ribao (1970–73) and head of the composition team attached to the Central Philharmonia (1972–4). He contributed to the composition of the small number of works approved by the Gang of Four. His theoretical writings include ...


John Warrack

(b Livonia, Nov 10, 1854; d Steyning, Sussex, Dec 9, 1931). German tenor and teacher . He studied at the Berlin Hochschule, then with Julius Stockhausen in Frankfurt and with Romain Bussine in Paris. This was followed by a special course of study of Schumann's and Schubert's songs with Clara Schumann. He first sang in London in 1882, later settling in England and becoming a very successful teacher, in London from 1905 and in Sussex from 1925. He was responsible for introducing the Liederabend, bringing the idea to England and giving Schubert a prominent place in the programmes. ‘His voice is peculiar and sympathetic’, wrote Grove, ‘but what gives Zur Mühlen's singing its chief charm is the remarkable clearness of his pronunciation, and the way in which he contrives to identify the feeling of the words with the music, to an extent which the writer has never heard equalled’....


Eliyahu Schleifer

(b Tel-Aviv, March 6, 1942). Israeli composer. After graduating from the College of Music Teachers in Tel-Aviv (1964), he studied theory at the Rubin Academy of Music and Dance, Jerusalem (until 1967). He continued his studies in the USA at the Mannes College of Music (BM 1971), Sarah Lawrence College (MFA 1972) and Columbia University (DMA 1976). During his years in New York he taught at Queens College, CUNY and New York University. In addition to his role as professor of composition and theory at the Rubin Academy of Music and Dance in Jerusalem, he has served as chair of the Israel League of Composers (1992–4) and the Israeli delegate to the ISCM (1992–6). His numerous honours include an award from the ISCM Electronic Music Competition (1975), a Guggenheim Fellowship (1981), two ACUM awards, the Joel Engel Prize (Tel-Aviv, ...



Hans Conradin

revised by Andrew Clark

The largest city in Switzerland and the cultural centre of the German-speaking population. Intensive musical activity in Zürich can be traced back to the Middle Ages. The most important source of German Minnesang, the Heidelberg (‘Manesse’) Manuscript, originated in Zürich, and the services in the cathedral and the numerous monastic churches rivalled the most splendid in southern Germany. Ulrich Zwingli was pastor at the Grossmünster from 1519 until his death in 1531, and although he was musical, and competent on several instruments, he was firmly opposed to the use of music in divine service. Church music in Zürich ceased in 1525, and the organs were removed from the churches in 1527. Singing was reintroduced by order of the council in 1598, but it was not until the 19th century that the organ gradually resumed its place in the service.

In the 17th century music in Zürich was dominated by three collegia musica: the first was ‘zum Chorherrensaal’, followed by the ‘ab dem Musiksaal’ (from ...


Ken Rattenbury

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Robert Albert; Zukowski, Bogusław Albert]

(b Detroit, Jan 17, 1912; d Los Angeles, Feb 16, 1944). American pianist and composer. At an early age he displayed a precocious talent for playing piano in an assertive, confident style influenced by the blues. He worked in Philadelphia as a member of an orchestra led by the pianist Oliver Naylor, recording in 1925 and appearing at the Palace d’Or and the Orient restaurant in the late 1920s and early 1930s; he also spent a period with the Playboys, led by the double bass player Thelma Terry (recording in 1928). After performing with the singer Seymour Simons and at Smokey’s Club in Detroit he came to prominence as a member of Bob Crosby’s band (late 1936 – mid-1939), in which he was Joe Sullivan’s replacement; while with Crosby he gained recognition as a leading exponent of the boogie-woogie style, and in 1939 he was named “best pianist” by ...





Marius Flothuis

[née Tuyll van Serooskerken, Isabella Agneta Elisabeth van ]

(b Zuylen castle, nr Utrecht, Oct 20, 1740; d Colombier, Switzerland, Dec 26, 1805). Dutch writer and composer. From 1771 she lived in Switzerland with her husband Charles-Emmanuel de Charrière de Penthaz. She is remembered especially for her extensive, witty and often caustic correspondence with James Boswell, Benjamin Constant, Germaine de Staël and others (see M. Flothuis: ‘An Unexpected Source of Musical Information: the Correspondence of Belle van Zuylen (1740–1805)’, FAM, xxvii (1980), 33–6; xxviii (1981), 145 only) and also for her novels, plays and pamphlets, all (including the letters) written in French. She was educated by a Swiss governess, Jeanne Prévost, with whom she continued to correspond for several years; only the letters of Mme Prévost have survived. Music played an important role in her career, as was usual in noble families of the time. As early as 1764 she expressed a desire to study composition with Rameau, but he died the same year. In ...


Helena Havlíková

Opera in five acts by Jiří Pauer to his own libretto after Jan Bor’s play of the same name; Prague, National Theatre, 30 December 1958.

The opera, set during the years 1587–1620, deals with the love between Petr Vok (baritone), head of the powerful Rožmberk family, and the lowly country girl Zuzana (dramatic soprano). Refusing to be bound by convention, Zuzana gives Petr an heir. Vok’s wife (contralto) secretly kidnaps the child; meanwhile the situation has angered and alienated Zuzana’s former lover and betrothed, Ondrej (tenor). After Vok’s death Zuzana is driven out of the castle, but at the end of her life she sees Ondrej and her son again and finds lasting peace.

Composed between 1954 and 1957, Zuzana Vojířová is based on a highly successful historical play written during the German occupation. Pauer completely revised the work in 1978, and it was one of the most frequently performed Czech operas until the end of the 1970s. Pauer viewed opera within a socialist culture as a means to provide a social forum and platform on which to play out the ethical and ideological struggle for the improvement of humanity. In this sense, ...



Valdis Muktupāvels

[govju zvans, pulkstens]

Cast and forged metal bells of Latvia. Small cast bronze bells are known from the 7th century, found by archaeologists attached to shawls, belts, and other parts of female costume, usually grouped in threes. The diameter of the opening is 15 to 30 mm, and the clapper in a form of a lamella is attached inside. Cast church bells are known in Latvia from the 12th century. The bell was hung in a church tower or a separate bell tower and rung for ecclesiastic rites, for special events such as weddings and funerals, and also to sound alarms. The church bells were thought to offer protection from evil influences.

Forged bells, govju zvans, were made of thin folded brass plates, with riveted edges. A wire with an iron weight—screw-nuts or similar—was fastened inside. Such bells were hung around the necks of farm animals while grazing, especially at night.

Ī. Priedīte...



Darja Koter

[haloška žvegla]

Transverse flute of Slovenia. It is made of plum heartwood, unpolished, in nine sizes from about 20 to 52 cm long, with the two longest flutes made in two parts. Žvegle are pitched at g”, f”, d♭”, c♯”, b’, a’, g’, f’ and e♭’ respectively and each encompasses two octaves. The cylindrical tube widens at each end; the upper end is closed. The highest of the six equidistant fingerholes lies at the centre of the tube’s length. Žvegle are played alone or in pairs or trios of the same size, and with the trstenke (panpipe) or frajtonerca (accordion). From the 18th century to the second half of the 20th, žvegle were made principally by the Merc family from Haloze, in Slovenian Styria. The folk tradition of the Merc family continues in the same area. (D. Hasl: ‘Haloška žvegla’, Tradiciones acta institute ethnographiae Slovenorum...


Miroslav K. Černý

revised by Jitka Ludvová

(b Kublov, nr Beroun, Bohemia, Jan 22, 1824; d Prague, Nov 23, 1865). Czech writer on music, teacher and composer . He completed his early schooling through the help of a priest, who also instructed him in music theory. Having concluded his studies with Pitsch at the organ school in Prague, he became an assistant there, teaching plainsong as well as the organ, and later served briefly as the school's director. In 1860 he accepted the post of director at the Žofín Academy, where he founded courses for training women as singers and piano teachers. He also taught at various girls' high schools and ran courses for young working people.

After composing some music to German texts, in 1848 Zvonař associated himself with the Czech national movement. He wrote reviews for a Prague newspaper and later in the journals Dalibor and Slavoj. One of the founders and leading members of the choral society Hlahol and the artists' society Umělecká Beseda, he also gave private composition lessons, with Bendl and probably Dvořák among his pupils....



Ivan Mačak

Bells of Slovakia. There are many forms: zvonce drevené (wooden bells), zvonce liate (cast metal bells), plechové zvonce or spiežovce (bells of folded sheet metal), and zvonce hlinené (ceramic bells). Herders hang differently tuned bells on their animals so that in rough terrain they can locate them and know which animals are in front, behind, or in the middle of the group. Herders also pay attention to the harmony of the bells and sometimes say that they are ‘making a symphony.’...


Gert Oost

(b Rotterdam, Aug 20, 1877; d Zaandam, July 13, 1937). Dutch organist, composer and organologist . He studied with, among others, Hendrik de Vries, a composer and organist at the Laurenskerk in Rotterdam. From 1893 he worked as an organist in Rotterdam, and from 1898 until his death was organist of the Hersteld Evangelical Lutheran church in Amsterdam, where he gave many recitals on the famous Strumphler organ (now in St Eusebius in Arnhem). There he opposed the practice of playing organ transcriptions and promoted original organ music. He had an extensive repertory, including many then unknown French and German works. From 1929 he gave weekly organ recitals on the radio. He also made a study of historical Dutch organs and organ music, especially the works of Sweelinck, Hendrick Spuy and Anthoni van Noordt. Zwart composed many organ works based on Reformed church songs and in a romantic style, which he published himself along with various articles. The series Nederlandsche Orgelmuziek, published in Koog aan den Zaan from ...