(b Livonia, Nov 10, 1854; d Steyning, Sussex, Dec 9, 1931). German tenor and teacher . He studied at the Berlin Hochschule, then with Julius Stockhausen in Frankfurt and with Romain Bussine in Paris. This was followed by a special course of study of Schumann's and Schubert's songs with Clara Schumann. He first sang in London in 1882, later settling in England and becoming a very successful teacher, in London from 1905 and in Sussex from 1925. He was responsible for introducing the Liederabend, bringing the idea to England and giving Schubert a prominent place in the programmes. ‘His voice is peculiar and sympathetic’, wrote Grove, ‘but what gives Zur Mühlen's singing its chief charm is the remarkable clearness of his pronunciation, and the way in which he contrives to identify the feeling of the words with the music, to an extent which the writer has never heard equalled’....
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(b Tel-Aviv, March 6, 1942). Israeli composer. After graduating from the College of Music Teachers in Tel-Aviv (1964), he studied theory at the Rubin Academy of Music and Dance, Jerusalem (until 1967). He continued his studies in the USA at the Mannes College of Music (BM 1971), Sarah Lawrence College (MFA 1972) and Columbia University (DMA 1976). During his years in New York he taught at Queens College, CUNY and New York University. In addition to his role as professor of composition and theory at the Rubin Academy of Music and Dance in Jerusalem, he has served as chair of the Israel League of Composers (1992–4) and the Israeli delegate to the ISCM (1992–6). His numerous honours include an award from the ISCM Electronic Music Competition (1975), a Guggenheim Fellowship (1981), two ACUM awards, the Joel Engel Prize (Tel-Aviv, ...
revised by Andrew Clark
The largest city in Switzerland and the cultural centre of the German-speaking population. Intensive musical activity in Zürich can be traced back to the Middle Ages. The most important source of German Minnesang, the Heidelberg (‘Manesse’) Manuscript, originated in Zürich, and the services in the cathedral and the numerous monastic churches rivalled the most splendid in southern Germany. Ulrich Zwingli was pastor at the Grossmünster from 1519 until his death in 1531, and although he was musical, and competent on several instruments, he was firmly opposed to the use of music in divine service. Church music in Zürich ceased in 1525, and the organs were removed from the churches in 1527. Singing was reintroduced by order of the council in 1598, but it was not until the 19th century that the organ gradually resumed its place in the service.
In the 17th century music in Zürich was dominated by three collegia musica: the first was ‘zum Chorherrensaal’, followed by the ‘ab dem Musiksaal’ (from ...
revised by Barry Kernfeld
[Robert Albert; Zukowski, Bogusław Albert]
(b Detroit, Jan 17, 1912; d Los Angeles, Feb 16, 1944). American pianist and composer. At an early age he displayed a precocious talent for playing piano in an assertive, confident style influenced by the blues. He worked in Philadelphia as a member of an orchestra led by the pianist Oliver Naylor, recording in 1925 and appearing at the Palace d’Or and the Orient restaurant in the late 1920s and early 1930s; he also spent a period with the Playboys, led by the double bass player Thelma Terry (recording in 1928). After performing with the singer Seymour Simons and at Smokey’s Club in Detroit he came to prominence as a member of Bob Crosby’s band (late 1936 – mid-1939), in which he was Joe Sullivan’s replacement; while with Crosby he gained recognition as a leading exponent of the boogie-woogie style, and in 1939 he was named “best pianist” by ...
[née Tuyll van Serooskerken, Isabella Agneta Elisabeth van ]
(b Zuylen castle, nr Utrecht, Oct 20, 1740; d Colombier, Switzerland, Dec 26, 1805). Dutch writer and composer. From 1771 she lived in Switzerland with her husband Charles-Emmanuel de Charrière de Penthaz. She is remembered especially for her extensive, witty and often caustic correspondence with James Boswell, Benjamin Constant, Germaine de Staël and others (see M. Flothuis: ‘An Unexpected Source of Musical Information: the Correspondence of Belle van Zuylen (1740–1805)’, FAM, xxvii (1980), 33–6; xxviii (1981), 145 only) and also for her novels, plays and pamphlets, all (including the letters) written in French. She was educated by a Swiss governess, Jeanne Prévost, with whom she continued to correspond for several years; only the letters of Mme Prévost have survived. Music played an important role in her career, as was usual in noble families of the time. As early as 1764 she expressed a desire to study composition with Rameau, but he died the same year. In ...
Opera in five acts by Jiří Pauer to his own libretto after Jan Bor’s play of the same name; Prague, National Theatre, 30 December 1958.
The opera, set during the years 1587–1620, deals with the love between Petr Vok (baritone), head of the powerful Rožmberk family, and the lowly country girl Zuzana (dramatic soprano). Refusing to be bound by convention, Zuzana gives Petr an heir. Vok’s wife (contralto) secretly kidnaps the child; meanwhile the situation has angered and alienated Zuzana’s former lover and betrothed, Ondrej (tenor). After Vok’s death Zuzana is driven out of the castle, but at the end of her life she sees Ondrej and her son again and finds lasting peace.
Composed between 1954 and 1957, Zuzana Vojířová is based on a highly successful historical play written during the German occupation. Pauer completely revised the work in 1978, and it was one of the most frequently performed Czech operas until the end of the 1970s. Pauer viewed opera within a socialist culture as a means to provide a social forum and platform on which to play out the ethical and ideological struggle for the improvement of humanity. In this sense, ...
[govju zvans, pulkstens]
Cast and forged metal bells of Latvia. Small cast bronze bells are known from the 7th century, found by archaeologists attached to shawls, belts, and other parts of female costume, usually grouped in threes. The diameter of the opening is 15 to 30 mm, and the clapper in a form of a lamella is attached inside. Cast church bells are known in Latvia from the 12th century. The bell was hung in a church tower or a separate bell tower and rung for ecclesiastic rites, for special events such as weddings and funerals, and also to sound alarms. The church bells were thought to offer protection from evil influences.
Forged bells, govju zvans, were made of thin folded brass plates, with riveted edges. A wire with an iron weight—screw-nuts or similar—was fastened inside. Such bells were hung around the necks of farm animals while grazing, especially at night.Ī. Priedīte...
Transverse flute of Slovenia. It is made of plum heartwood, unpolished, in nine sizes from about 20 to 52 cm long, with the two longest flutes made in two parts. Žvegle are pitched at g”, f”, d♭”, c♯”, b’, a’, g’, f’ and e♭’ respectively and each encompasses two octaves. The cylindrical tube widens at each end; the upper end is closed. The highest of the six equidistant fingerholes lies at the centre of the tube’s length. Žvegle are played alone or in pairs or trios of the same size, and with the trstenke (panpipe) or frajtonerca (accordion). From the 18th century to the second half of the 20th, žvegle were made principally by the Merc family from Haloze, in Slovenian Styria. The folk tradition of the Merc family continues in the same area. (D. Hasl: ‘Haloška žvegla’, Tradiciones acta institute ethnographiae Slovenorum...
Miroslav K. Černý
revised by Jitka Ludvová
(b Kublov, nr Beroun, Bohemia, Jan 22, 1824; d Prague, Nov 23, 1865). Czech writer on music, teacher and composer . He completed his early schooling through the help of a priest, who also instructed him in music theory. Having concluded his studies with Pitsch at the organ school in Prague, he became an assistant there, teaching plainsong as well as the organ, and later served briefly as the school's director. In 1860 he accepted the post of director at the Žofín Academy, where he founded courses for training women as singers and piano teachers. He also taught at various girls' high schools and ran courses for young working people.
After composing some music to German texts, in 1848 Zvonař associated himself with the Czech national movement. He wrote reviews for a Prague newspaper and later in the journals Dalibor and Slavoj. One of the founders and leading members of the choral society Hlahol and the artists' society Umělecká Beseda, he also gave private composition lessons, with Bendl and probably Dvořák among his pupils....
Bells of Slovakia. There are many forms: zvonce drevené (wooden bells), zvonce liate (cast metal bells), plechové zvonce or spiežovce (bells of folded sheet metal), and zvonce hlinené (ceramic bells). Herders hang differently tuned bells on their animals so that in rough terrain they can locate them and know which animals are in front, behind, or in the middle of the group. Herders also pay attention to the harmony of the bells and sometimes say that they are ‘making a symphony.’...
(b Rotterdam, Aug 20, 1877; d Zaandam, July 13, 1937). Dutch organist, composer and organologist . He studied with, among others, Hendrik de Vries, a composer and organist at the Laurenskerk in Rotterdam. From 1893 he worked as an organist in Rotterdam, and from 1898 until his death was organist of the Hersteld Evangelical Lutheran church in Amsterdam, where he gave many recitals on the famous Strumphler organ (now in St Eusebius in Arnhem). There he opposed the practice of playing organ transcriptions and promoted original organ music. He had an extensive repertory, including many then unknown French and German works. From 1929 he gave weekly organ recitals on the radio. He also made a study of historical Dutch organs and organ music, especially the works of Sweelinck, Hendrick Spuy and Anthoni van Noordt. Zwart composed many organ works based on Reformed church songs and in a romantic style, which he published himself along with various articles. The series Nederlandsche Orgelmuziek, published in Koog aan den Zaan from ...
(b Amsterdam, May 18, 1854; d Amsterdam, Dec 9, 1924). Dutch composer. Together with Alphons Diepenbrock and Johan Wagenaar he was one of the principal figures in Dutch music at the turn of the century. His father, a well-known amateur singer, owned a book and music shop in Amsterdam where Bernard worked and consequently came to know many notable musicians. In 1881 he attended a performance of the Ring in Berlin. Wagner's music proved to be a major influence, shaping Zweers's musical idiom and the style of his future works. He was essentially self-taught but, with the support of his piano duet partner, a businessman, he studied with Jadassohn in Leipzig for eight months in 1881–2. By that time he had already had works performed in Amsterdam, including the Missa quatuor vocibus (1877) and his First Symphony (1881). On his return from Leipzig Zweers began to take an active part in Dutch musical life. For several years, until his hearing deteriorated, he conducted three prominent choirs (the Amsterdam Male-Voice choir, Liedertafel Apollo and the choir of the Mozes- en Aaronkerk). From ...
revised by Tamara Levitz
(b Vienna, Nov 28, 1881; d Petrópolis, Brazil, Feb 22, 1942). Austrian writer . In his day a leading European literary figure, he was exceptionally cultivated and had deep humanistic sympathies. His active pacifism dates from his exile in Zürich (1917–18), during which time he met several noteworthy musical figures. After the war he became one of the more highly regarded, widely read and translated Austrian writers of his generation. In 1934 he emigrated to England, and in 1941 settled in Brazil. Distraught at the persecution of the Jews, Zweig committed suicide, together with his wife, in 1942.
His writings include several on musicians – Busoni, Toscanini and Bruno Walter, who were his close friends (Berg was another), as well as Handel, Mahler and Richard Strauss. His significance for music history lies largely in his collaboration with Strauss, which began in 1932. Only one work was produced, the comic opera ...
(b Judenburg, Styria, c1545–50; d ?Graz, Styria, May 1582). Austrian singer and composer. He was chorister in the Stephansdom, Vienna, and in 1559 was admitted to the university there. In 1572 his name appears last in a list of five basses employed at the Graz court household of Archduke Karl II of Inner Austria. At the express wish of the archduke he took holy orders and in 1579, when he accompanied his master to Munich, he was nominated first court chaplain. He himself used the title ‘Elimosinarius’ (almoner) in 1581. All that has survived of his work is a Magnificat à 6, A la fontaine du pris (in A-Gu , D-Kl and SI-Lu, ed. in DTÖ, cxxxiii, 1981), based on the chanson with the same title by Willaert. This work shows Zweiller to have been among the earliest composers to write parody Magnificat settings, a style with which he had presumably become familiar through contact with Lassus at Munich....
(b Pistyán, Hungary, July 13, 1876; d Vienna, 14/June 15, 1947). Austro-Hungarian soprano. She sang soubrette roles at the Carltheater in Vienna from 1901 to 1920, also appearing at the summer theatre in the Prater, the Raimundtheater and the Theater an der Wien. She was the original Franzi in Straus’s ...
Opera in one act, op.17, by Alexander Zemlinsky to a libretto by Georg Klaren after Oscar Wilde’s novel The Birthday of the Infanta; Cologne, Neues Theater, 28 May 1922.
The origins of Der Zwerg lie in Zemlinsky’s obsession with ugliness. Significantly, Alma Mahler referred to Zemlinsky himself in her memoirs as ‘a horrible dwarf’. He may first have come across Wilde’s story in 1908, when Schreker’s pantomime Der Geburtstag der Infantin was first performed in Vienna. Three years later Zemlinsky commissioned Schreker to write a libretto on the subject of ‘the tragedy of the ugly man’. This crystallized in Die Gezeichneten, which Schreker decided to set himself; its principal character, Alviano, bears a striking resemblance to the Dwarf. Zemlinsky’s involvement in the origins of Die Gezeichneten goes some way towards explaining why Klaren’s libretto differs significantly from Wilde’s story. In Klaren’s version the Infanta is no longer a girl but a young woman whose cruelty is premeditated. The Dwarf is no longer a charming natural monster but a much more complex and indeed civilized being. Zemlinsky’s emotional identification with the hero also suggests why the work seems so highly charged. In a letter to his publisher Emil Hertzka he confessed that it differed from ...