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(a) Geometrical construction used to determine the plane of a reflector in (c) and (d); (b) paths of direct sound, and several reflected sound waves in a 19th-century concert hall with traditional horizontal floor and ceiling and parallel side walls (the diagram illustrates the different types of reflection which aid listening in a concert hall; after Beranek, 1962); (c) plan of the seating (shaded) and stage, showing the complexity of the calculations necessary to determine the wall reflectors of a small auditorium; (d) shape of the floor and ceiling of same, showing the calculation for the ceiling reflectors (after Bagenal and Wood, 1931)...

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(a) Helical horn, c1572 (Historisches Museum, Dresden); (b) triple-coil horn in F by William Bull, London, 1699 (Horniman Museum, London); (c) horn by George Henry Rodenbostel, London, late 18th century (City Museum and Art Gallery, Gloucester), shown with master crook and two couplers (mouthpiece missing)

Gloucester Folk Museum

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(a) Kalapácsos kereplő (hammer-clapper) and (b) szélkereplő (wind-clapper)

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(a) Lace-tensioned kettledrums: woodcut from Mersenne’s ‘Harmonie universelle’ (1636–7); (b) screw-tensioned kettledrums: woodcut from Praetorius’s ‘Syntagma musicum’ (2/1619)

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(a) Lateral and (b) hill-and-dale movement of the stylus used in early stereophonic recording; (c), (d) movement of the stylus in the 45°/45° system of two-channel stereophonic recording

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(a) List of ekphonetic signs (read right to left) from a 10th- or early 11th-century MS (ET-MSsc 8, f.303v); the ekphonetic signs are in red ink and are distinct from the supplementary Palaeo-Byzantine notation, here, unusually, in black ink; (b) transcription of the above passage showing ekphonetic signs only

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(a) Long-necked lute on a Mesopotamian cylinder seal, Akkadian period, c2370–2110 BCE (British Museum, London); (b) Long-necked lute and arched harp: detail from a painting in the tomb of Djeserkare‘sonb, Thebes, from the time of Tuthmosis IV (reigned 1425–1417 BCE); (c) Short-necked lute: terracotta figurine (3rd century BCE) from Tanagra (Musée du Louvre, Paris)...

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(a) Modern Viennese oboe by Hermann Zuleger (Bate Collection, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford); (b) experimental oboe by Romeo Orsi, Milan, 1918–30 (private collection)

Tony Bingham

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(a) Natural trumpet in D by Johann Leonard Ehe (iii), Nuremberg, mid-18th century; (b) modern fanfare trumpet in E♭ by Karl Hammerschmidt & Sons, Watzkenroth; (c) English slide trumpet in F by Köhler & Son, London, c1850; (d) keyed trumpet in A♭ by Alois Doke, Linz, c1820; (e) Inventionstrompete in E♭ by I.G. Roth senior, Adorf, 1826; (f) valve trumpet in G, with Périnet valves, by Antoine Courtois, Paris, c1865; (g) valve trumpet in G, with Vienna valves, by Carl August Müller, Mainz, c1850; (a) America’s Shrine to Music Museum, Vermillion, South Dakota; (b), (d), (e) Historisches Museum, Basle; (c) E.H. Tarr Collection, Rheinfelden; (f), (g) Trompetenmuseum, Bad Säckingen...

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(a) Pair of recorders: detail from the ‘Triumph of Venus’, upper register of the ‘Allegory of April’ (‘Taurus’), fresco by Francesco del Cossa, c1468–70 (Salone dei Mesi, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara); (b) one-piece recorder: detail of ‘Vanitas Still-life’ by Jan Davidsz. de Heem, 1664 (Museées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels)

Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique...