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Ana Ryker

(b Amsterdam, May 18, 1854; d Amsterdam, Dec 9, 1924). Dutch composer. Together with Alphons Diepenbrock and Johan Wagenaar he was one of the principal figures in Dutch music at the turn of the century. His father, a well-known amateur singer, owned a book and music shop in Amsterdam where Bernard worked and consequently came to know many notable musicians. In 1881 he attended a performance of the Ring in Berlin. Wagner's music proved to be a major influence, shaping Zweers's musical idiom and the style of his future works. He was essentially self-taught but, with the support of his piano duet partner, a businessman, he studied with Jadassohn in Leipzig for eight months in 1881–2. By that time he had already had works performed in Amsterdam, including the Missa quatuor vocibus (1877) and his First Symphony (1881). On his return from Leipzig Zweers began to take an active part in Dutch musical life. For several years, until his hearing deteriorated, he conducted three prominent choirs (the Amsterdam Male-Voice choir, Liedertafel Apollo and the choir of the Mozes- en Aaronkerk). From ...

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Richard Evidon

revised by Tamara Levitz

(b Vienna, Nov 28, 1881; d Petrópolis, Brazil, Feb 22, 1942). Austrian writer . In his day a leading European literary figure, he was exceptionally cultivated and had deep humanistic sympathies. His active pacifism dates from his exile in Zürich (1917–18), during which time he met several noteworthy musical figures. After the war he became one of the more highly regarded, widely read and translated Austrian writers of his generation. In 1934 he emigrated to England, and in 1941 settled in Brazil. Distraught at the persecution of the Jews, Zweig committed suicide, together with his wife, in 1942.

His writings include several on musicians – Busoni, Toscanini and Bruno Walter, who were his close friends (Berg was another), as well as Handel, Mahler and Richard Strauss. His significance for music history lies largely in his collaboration with Strauss, which began in 1932. Only one work was produced, the comic opera ...

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Hellmut Federhofer

(b Judenburg, Styria, c1545–50; d ?Graz, Styria, May 1582). Austrian singer and composer. He was chorister in the Stephansdom, Vienna, and in 1559 was admitted to the university there. In 1572 his name appears last in a list of five basses employed at the Graz court household of Archduke Karl II of Inner Austria. At the express wish of the archduke he took holy orders and in 1579, when he accompanied his master to Munich, he was nominated first court chaplain. He himself used the title ‘Elimosinarius’ (almoner) in 1581. All that has survived of his work is a Magnificat à 6, A la fontaine du pris (in A-Gu , D-Kl and SI-Lu, ed. in DTÖ, cxxxiii, 1981), based on the chanson with the same title by Willaert. This work shows Zweiller to have been among the earliest composers to write parody Magnificat settings, a style with which he had presumably become familiar through contact with Lassus at Munich....

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Andrew Lamb

[Mariel]

(b Pistyán, Hungary, July 13, 1876; d Vienna, 14/June 15, 1947). Austro-Hungarian soprano. She sang soubrette roles at the Carltheater in Vienna from 1901 to 1920, also appearing at the summer theatre in the Prater, the Raimundtheater and the Theater an der Wien. She was the original Franzi in Straus’s ...

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Alfred Clayton

(‘The Dwarf’)

Opera in one act, op.17, by Alexander Zemlinsky to a libretto by Georg Klaren after Oscar Wilde’s novel The Birthday of the Infanta; Cologne, Neues Theater, 28 May 1922.

The origins of Der Zwerg lie in Zemlinsky’s obsession with ugliness. Significantly, Alma Mahler referred to Zemlinsky himself in her memoirs as ‘a horrible dwarf’. He may first have come across Wilde’s story in 1908, when Schreker’s pantomime Der Geburtstag der Infantin was first performed in Vienna. Three years later Zemlinsky commissioned Schreker to write a libretto on the subject of ‘the tragedy of the ugly man’. This crystallized in Die Gezeichneten, which Schreker decided to set himself; its principal character, Alviano, bears a striking resemblance to the Dwarf. Zemlinsky’s involvement in the origins of Die Gezeichneten goes some way towards explaining why Klaren’s libretto differs significantly from Wilde’s story. In Klaren’s version the Infanta is no longer a girl but a young woman whose cruelty is premeditated. The Dwarf is no longer a charming natural monster but a much more complex and indeed civilized being. Zemlinsky’s emotional identification with the hero also suggests why the work seems so highly charged. In a letter to his publisher Emil Hertzka he confessed that it differed from ...

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William Kirk Bares

(b New York, NY, May 18, 1930; d Paris, France, April 2, 2010). American Jazz trombonist, bass trumpeter, and author. He is most widely known in musical circles for his work in Miles Davis’s Birth of the Cool band in 1948. Zwerin is better known to readers as a jazz contributor to Esquire, Playboy, Rolling Stone, Vogue, and Elle, and also as America’s preeminent European jazz correspondent. After a stint as a jazz critic for New York’s Village Voice (1964–9), he became the publication’s European editor (1969–71). In 1979 Zwerin became the Paris-based jazz critic for the International Herald Tribune, and in 2005 for Bloomberg News. His expatriate experiences are detailed with wit and candor in the autobiographical The Parisian Jazz Chronicles: an Improvisational Memoir (New Haven, 2005). His books La Tristesse de Saint Louis: Jazz under the Nazis (1987, reprinted as ...

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Karl Pfannhauser

[Johann Nepomuk Felix ]

(b Weitra, Lower Austria, bap. June 5, 1759; d Vienna, Aug 30, 1826). Austrian composer . He was a choirboy at the Schottenkloster in Vienna, studied humanities at Krems an der Donau and completed a philosophy course in Vienna. In 1778 he entered the Schottenkloster and in 1783 became a Benedictine priest; he was a priest (1786–1802) at the Laurenzkirche in the parish of Schottenfeld, Vienna, and parish administrator (1802–7) at the Ägydkirche in the Viennese suburb of Gumpendorf, where Haydn was also living. From 18 July 1807 until his death Zwetler was a prior and parish administrator at the Schottenkloster. He did much to improve its music, particularly during the period of peace (1815–48) that followed the Vienna Congress. Under him J.L. Eybler was the choir director, followed in 1824 by Ignaz Assmayr (1790–1862), and Franz Volkert (1778–1845) was the organist. During his administration the abbey’s archive and repertory were enriched by many works of the Classical masters, and Joseph Frühwald (...

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Victor H. Mattfeld

(b Konstanz, c1496; d Bischofszell, Oct 23, 1542). Swiss reformer, poet and hymnographer . In 1509 he entered Freiburg University to study law, where he met and became a friend of the humanist Bonifacius Amerbach. In 1518 he was ordained and, with his brother, matriculated at Bologna University, later going to study law at Siena University. In 1521 he became instructor in jurisprudence at Basle University and continued his studies in theology. At about this time he became a follower of Luther and eschewed humanism. In 1522 he married and took a parish at Riedlingen. Because of his Reformation activities he was ordered to appear in Rome in September 1524, but when he ignored this it was not pursued. However, because the peasants considered him a member of their party in the Peasants' War of 1525, he was expelled from Riedlingen. Later in the same year he assumed a pastorate in Konstanz where, with his brother Konrad and the brothers Ambrosius and Thomas Blarer, he was to become a leader of the reform movement....

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Zwickau  

Martin Schoppe

City in eastern Germany, dating from about 1200. The cathedral (St Marien) was consecrated in 1118, and in 1291 a city school was founded; its pupils provided music for the cathedral, but by 1470 the latter had appointed its own precentor. Typical of many medieval cities, it held performances of mystery plays and Latin comedies, and, in the early 16th century, Protestant plays at the school. The school day began and ended with choral singing; its library, established in 1537, contains some valuable manuscripts, including two volumes of music in a 15-volume original manuscript of Hans Sachs. The city was also a centre for itinerant musicians, a tradition which continued until 1846. On public occasions music was usually provided by the guild of Stadtpfeifers, employed by the city from the mid-15th century; by the mid-16th century there is evidence of an official Stadtpfeiferei. 16th-century precentors at the cathedral included Simon Cellarius, Cornelius Freundt and Johann Stolle. Zwickau's cultural life suffered during the Thirty Years War and as a result of the plagues of ...