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Article

Philip Bate

revised by William Waterhouse

(d 1831). English woodwind instrument inventor, maker and player and music publisher. Having originally trained as a turner, he began his career playing oboe, flute and flageolet at two London theatres. As maker, his first patent was in 1803 for a new model of ‘English flageolet’, which, by changing the fingering of the tonic from six to three fingers, led in about 1805 to the development of his double flageolet model in collaboration with John Parry (ii) (1776–1851). Between 1808 and 1821 he was in partnership with John Wood as Bainbridge & Wood, writing and publishing tutors and music for his instruments. From cto 1835 the business was continued by Bainbridge’s widow Harriet, and thereafter until 1855 by his successor, Hastrick, whose mark usually included the words ‘late Bainbridge, inventor’.

The firm’s speciality was the ‘English flute’ or ‘English flageolet’ – not to be confused with the French or the ‘quadrille’ flageolet – in its single, double and occasionally triple form. In addition they made single and double concert flutes with flageolet-type heads to be held transversely. These instruments, designed for amateurs of both sexes, enjoued enormous popularity, the double flageolet being much plagiarised (in spite of two unsuccessful legal actions) by rival makers both at home and abroad. Bainbridge was perhaps the earliest wind-instrument maker with the all-round abilities required to launch such projects successfully, combining single-handedly as he did the diverse skills of inventor, performer, teacher, manufacturer, author and publisher....

Article

Margaret Cranmer

(b 1770; bur. London, Oct 7, 1833). English piano maker, music seller, publisher, printer and organ builder. He worked in Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, London, from 1787 until his death. Domenico Motta joined him briefly to form Motta & Ball about 1794; in 1818 the Post Office London Directory lists the firm as J. Ball and Son. The son must be the Edward Ball who is listed as a piano maker at Duke Street in an 1824 jury roll preserved at Westminster City Archives. James Ball is listed in the 1827 Post Office London Directory as ‘Grand cabinet & square Piano Forte maker to his Majesty’. Ball’s early five-octave square pianos with the English single action had two hand stops, one for raising the dampers and the other a ‘lute’ stop. He is best known for his square pianos, but also made cabinet pianos and grands, some of them for the Prince Regent. In ...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith and Peter Ward Jones

(b ?London, c1750; d ?London, c1840). English music seller, instrument dealer and publisher. By 1776 he was established in London, where he remained active until his comparatively early retirement in 1795. In 1789 he went to Vienna to induce Haydn to visit England and to seek compositions from him and other composers, including Hoffmeister and Kozeluch. Bland is said to have been the hero of the ‘Razor’ Quartet story, in which he supposedly received the manuscript of the quartet, op.55 no.2, as a reward for presenting the composer with his English-style razor; however, the op.55 quartets were published in England not by Bland, but by Longman & Broderip in 1790. Haydn did eventually send Bland three piano trios (hXV: 15–17) which he subsequently published, and when Haydn arrived in London in January 1791 he spent his first night as a guest of Bland at his house in Holborn. Bland published other works by Haydn, though his business relationship with him was by no means an exclusive one. He also appears to have commissioned the ...

Article

Robert E. Eliason

(b Danzig, Prussia, Oct 20, 1799; d Brooklyn, NY, Oct 29, 1884).

American maker of flutes and other instruments, musical instrument dealer, and music publisher of Prussian birth. Christman was principally a flute maker, though he or his workmen also made other woodwinds and some brass instruments. His only known patent concerned improvements to the flute.

Christman came to the United States in his early twenties, and was first listed in the New York City Directory of 1823. The earliest indications of his success are the exhibits of his flutes and flageolets by George Willig at the 1828, 1830, and 1831 Franklin Institute fairs in Philadelphia. The awards he won for instruments exhibited in the American Institute of the City of New York mechanic fairs illustrate his contributions to flute development of the time. For a 10-key flute in 1837, silver medal; for a 16-key flute in 1846...

Article

Forsyth  

Margaret Cranmer

English firm of publishers and music and instrument dealers. The brothers Henry Forsyth (d July 1885) and James Forsyth (b 1833; d Manchester, Jan 2, 1907) were the third generation of Forsyths to work for Broadwood; they started their own business in Manchester in 1857, selling, hiring, tuning and repairing pianos. They published music from 1858, but this activity became important only in 1873, when they produced the first numbers of Charles Hallé’s Practical Pianoforte School and opened a London publishing house at Oxford Circus. Their list grew to include works by Stephen Heller (a friend of Hallé), Berlioz, Stanford and Delius. The firm also shared significantly in the management of leading concerts in Manchester, in particular the Hallé concerts. In 1901 the firm became a limited company; it now sells pianos, orchestral and school instruments, sheet music by all publishers and records. James’s son Algernon Forsyth (...

Article

(b Luxembourg, Aug 16, 1884; d New York, Aug 19, 1967). American writer, publisher, and inventor. In 1904 he emigrated to America, where in 1908 he founded the first of a series of radio magazines (including Radio-Craft) which he wrote for and edited. He later turned to science fiction magazines (from ...

Article

Niall O’Loughlin

(Adam )

(b ?Ritzfeld bei Weinsberg, Germany, c1772/3; d London, England, March 27, 1850). Maker of wind instruments, music seller, and publisher. He was in London by 1795 and was naturalized by Act of Parliament in 1804; that same year he was granted the freedom of the Musicians’ Company. He worked at 76 Bishopsgate from about 1804 to 1822. Through a partnership with the successors to George Astor the firm became known as Gerock, Astor & Co. (1822–6), operating at 79 Cornhill. Robert Wolf, described as an employee in 1828, married Gerock’s daughter Sabrina Susannah in 1831. The firm was known as Gerock & Wolf during 1831–2, but reverted to the name C. Gerock & Co. from 1832 to 1837, when Gerock retired. The firm of Robert Wolf & Co. operated at 79 Cornhill after 1837, principally selling pianos.

In a trial for theft of flutes by his employee Samuel Porter in ...

Article

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

(b Framingham, MA, 1820; d Watertown, MA, July 6, 1895). American music publisher and music and instrument dealer. According to several accounts he was a farmhand and fiddler. He compiled a large collection of fiddle tunes popular at local dances and persuaded the Boston publishers Wright & Kidder to publish it as The Musician’s Companion. As a result of his success in selling this collection from door to door, he opened a music shop in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1842, and set up a similar business in Boston in 1843. His books of arrangements and instrument instruction were popular: the Complete Preceptor for the Accordeon (1843) sold over 100,000 copies, and his violin self-mastery volumes sold over 500,000 copies. In 1850 he sold his catalogue to the Boston publisher Oliver Ditson and agreed not to publish music for ten years. During that period he lived on his newly acquired estate in South Framingham, managed the South Reading Ice Company and compiled editions of dance music and dance instruction books....

Article

Lloyd P. Farrar

(b Philadelphia, 1853; d Philadelphia, July 28, 1919). American music publisher and band instrument maker . He worked as an engraver in his father's printing business, gave music lessons and in 1876 founded a publishing house at 9th and Filbert streets in Philadelphia. From copper plates and a manually operated press he issued instrumental tutors, quicksteps and from 1877 to 1912 a monthly periodical entitled J.W. Pepper's Musical Times and Band Journal (later the Musical Times). Around 1887 he acquired a structure at 8th and Locust streets which came to be known as the J.W. Pepper Building, accommodating a large salesroom, an instrument factory and a printing plant, equipped with steam-powered presses to produce sheet music on a large scale. During the next four decades the firm published nearly 200 new titles a year; except for a small group of sacred songs issued by Pepper Publishing Co. in ...

Article

Peter Ward Jones

( b Galway, 1766; d London, Aug 26, 1836). Irish music publisher and instrument maker . After starting out as a pewterer he entered the military instrument trade, and set up with his brother William in Dublin in 1797 as James and William Power, music selling and publishing being eventually added to their activities. Towards the end of 1807 he moved to London, where he established himself as a military instrument maker and music publisher. William continued the Dublin business as William Power & Co. until 1831, but the partnership with his brother ceased about 1810, although many publications were issued jointly by them up to 1820.

The brothers' major publishing venture was Moore's Irish Melodies. For this project they commissioned the poet Thomas Moore (ii) to provide original verses to be set to traditional melodies arranged by John Stevenson (a plan similar to the Scottish Melodies then being issued by the Edinburgh publisher George Thomson). The first two parts were published in London and Dublin in ...

Article

Beryl Kenyon de Pascual

(b Madrid, May 11, 1815; d Madrid, Oct 7, 1886). Spanish clarinettist, music publisher and instrument inventor . Romero began to study the clarinet in 1826 and by 1829 he was playing in a regimental band and a theatre orchestra in Valladolid. He subsequently joined the band of the royal guards, rising to bandmaster in 1841, and was appointed supernumerary clarinet in the royal chapel in 1844. During the 1840s and 50s he also played in Madrid theatre orchestras as a clarinettist and oboist. From 1849 to 1876 he was professor of the clarinet at the Madrid Conservatory and briefly taught the oboe. He opened a shop in 1854 selling both music and instruments and in 1856 founded a music publishing firm. By 1870 he had incorporated an instrument factory into his business and in 1884 he added a concert room.

Romero was an influential figure in Madrid musical life. As a publisher he laid particular emphasis on making available works by Spanish composers and on enlarging the military band repertory. He published a series of specially commissioned Spanish-language tutors covering all conservatory and band instruments, himself writing those for the clarinet, the bassoon and the french horn. A modern revised edition of his clarinet tutor was still in use in Spain at the end of the 20th century. In ...

Article

Jay Scott Odell

(b Philadelphia, Jan 8, 1855; d Philadelphia, April 6, 1898). American maker of banjos and music publisher. After instruction on the violin and other instruments he studied the banjo with George C. Dobson; in 1878 he opened a banjo school and shortly thereafter began to make banjos. By 1880 he was in business at 221–3 Church Street, Philadelphia, and on 18 January 1882 began the publication of Stewart’s Banjo and Guitar Journal from the same address. This journal (published under various titles until April 1901) contained news and photographs of banjoists and banjo clubs, fulminations against competing manufacturers, testimonials from satisfied customers and music arranged for the banjo. Through this and over 15 other publications, Stewart was highly influential in promoting the popular enthusiasm for fretted instrument clubs and orchestras which lasted into the 1930s. His campaign to ‘elevate’ the image of the banjo by denying its African American origins is documented by Linn....

Article

Michael D. Friesen

(b Aberdeen, Scotland, c1743; d Philadelphia, PA, April 1, 1836). Maker of organs and pianos, instrument retailer, and music publisher of Scottish birth. He arrived in New York from Britain in May 1786 and advertised himself as an organ builder, as well as a repairer of keyboard instruments and guitars. He moved to Philadelphia by July of that year, remaining in that city for the rest of his career. It has been claimed that Taws was associated with New York piano importer John Jacob Astor, but there is no evidence for that assertion. Charles varied the spelling of his surname for several years after arriving in America; it also appears as Tawse and Tawes.

In Philadelphia Taws soon began piano manufacture, and thereafter usually styled himself a “musical instrument maker,” advertising the furnishing of harpsichords, violins, and guitars as well. He also maintained an extensive repair and tuning business. He gradually expanded the scope of his activities to include importing pianos from London for sale, dealing in instrument sales and rental, selling music and instrument supplies, and from ...

Article

Edward Garden

(b Sternberg, Sept 22, 1851; d Berlin, April 25, 1922). German music publisher and woodwind and brass instrument manufacturer . He had factories in St Petersburg (1876), Moscow (1882) and Riga (1903). The headquarters of the publishing firm was established in Leipzig in 1886, with the actual printing being carried out by Breitkopf & Härtel. Zimmermann became friendly with Balakirev in 1899 and thereafter published all the works of that composer. It may be that it was Zimmermann’s exhortations that encouraged the prolificness of the final decade of Balakirev’s life. He also published the majority of the compositions of Balakirev’s protégé Sergey Lyapunov. Other composers’ music published by him include Medtner, Josef Hofmann, Tausig, A.S. Taneyev and Reinecke. He suffered financial hardship during World War I, but, although he resumed the publication of music by Russian composers in 1919, he was unable to reopen his former Russian factories and shops. In ...