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Rudolf Pohl

City in Germany. The cathedral and its music were the creation of Charlemagne (742–814), who made the town the northern capital of the Holy Roman Empire; the Holy Roman emperors were crowned there from 813 to 1531. The city was occupied by France in 1794...


David Johnson, Roger B. Williams and Charles Foster

Ctiy in Scotland. Bishop Elphinstone founded the University of Aberdeen in 1495 with stringently chosen prebendary priests to sing the daily Divine Office. From 1662 to 1720 John Forbes, printer to the town council, was Scotland's only notable music publisher, and during the 1760s and 1770s John Gregory, James Beattie and Alexander Gerard, all professors at King's or Marischal universities, were the leading British writers on musical aesthetics. From about ...


Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell

City in Australia. Unlike Australian convict settlements, the city (the capital of South Australia) was founded, in 1836, through planned colonization and subsidized migration. Dependence on a pastoral and mining economy meant that the city’s prosperity was subject to the fluctuating seasons, the Victorian goldrush and the commercial interests of rival cities. 19th-century migration added a distinct ethnic mix to the transplanted British society, most notably the German communities who established wine-making regions. European and Asian migration after World War II continued this trend, and national clubs and cultural organizations preserve many diverse music and dance traditions. The Aboriginal population in South Australia (estimated at 12,000 before colonization) was decimated and pushed into arid lands during the 19th century, but extensive research in Aboriginal culture and special initiatives such as the Centre for Aboriginal Studies in Music, founded at the University of Adelaide by ethnomusicologist Catherine J. Ellis in ...


Marcel Frémiot

City in southern France. Strophic songs, ‘planchs de St Estève’, were chanted from the 9th century for the feast of St Stephen in the former cathedral, Notre Dame de la Seds, but the city suffered for a long time from Saracen invasions and was able to resume any artistic activity of note only from the 11th century. The first known ...


Karl Hinterbichler

City in New Mexico (pop. 541,615; metropolitan area 869,684; 2010 US Census). The Rio Grande Valley has been populated and cultivated since as far back as 2000 bce. The Pueblo people who lived in the area when Europeans arrived had a sophisticated culture and advanced skills in stone masonry, ceramics, and a wide range of arts and crafts. Although the Spanish settled in New Mexico in ...



Frank Dobbins

City in France, capital of Picardy. Christianity was introduced in the 4th century, St Firminus being the city’s first bishop. The cathedral of Notre Dame, the largest in France, was built between 1220 and 1270. During the Middle Ages the town’s prosperity was based on the cloth trade. By the Treaty of Arras (...


Susan Wingrove

City in Alaska, USA. Anchorage Opera, a nationally recognized regional non-profit-making company founded by Elvera Voth, its artistic director, presented Pagliacci as its first production in 1975, followed by The Ballad of Baby Doe to celebrate America’s 1976 bicentenary, then La bohème in 1977. In ...



Elvidio Surian and Marco Salvarani

City in Italy. It is the capital of the Marches region. Documents of the mid-16th century attest to the activities of a group of players of wind instruments and singers employed by Municipal Authorities, to be used in civil and convivial occasions. Among the earliest musicians recorded as active in the cathedral of S Ciriaco are Nicolò Branchino or Bianchini (...



Jeffrey M. Engel

City in France. It is situated at the western end of the Loire valley.

The cathedral of St Maurice was constructed between 1125 and 1148. Musical activity centred around it until the French Revolution. Of particular note was the Psallette, a choir school founded in ...


Nathan Platte

City in Michigan (pop. 113,934; 2010 US Census). It was founded in 1824 by John Allen and Elisha Rumsey, then chartered as a city in 1851. When the new city charter arrived by train at the Ann Arbor depot in 1851, performances from the local German Brass Band heightened the awaiting crowd’s celebratory mood. From the time of that inaugural event, Ann Arbor’s musical life has continued as a sonic expression of the city’s people, institutions, and spaces....


American town in Michigan. It is the site of the Michigan, University of, School of Music .



Percy M. Young

Town in Germany. It was formerly the seat of the Hohenzollern margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach in Bavaria. The margravate was established in the 14th century. An organ was installed in the newly built parish church of St Johannis in 1435, but it was only after Georg ‘the Pious’ (ruled ...



Ancient city in Asia Minor. It was an important centre of early Christian chant. See Byzantine chant, §1; Christian Church, music of the early, §I, 4, (i); Plainchant, §1; Severus of Antioch ; and Syrian church music, §1 .



Godelieve Spiessens

City in Belgium. For centuries it has been an important musical centre and has played a leading role in the music of the Low Countries. Around 1410 the choir school of the church of Our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk; later the cathedral) began to develop an active musical life. Up to the 17th century its choirmasters, organists and singers included such composers as Pullois, Ockeghem, Barbireau, Obrecht, Waelrant, Gérard de Turnhout, Séverin Cornet, Pevernage, Opitiis and John Bull; in addition Rore, Lassus and Monte all spent some time in the city. Secular music was promoted by the establishment of the town players (before ...


Raffaella Camilot-Oswald

Town in Italy. From early Christian times and during the Middle Ages it was an important city in the Friuli region of Northern Italy, giving its name to the patriarchate it governed. It is known to have been a major liturgical centre and probably developed a distinctive tradition of plainchant. The patriarchate of Aquileia was suppressed in the 18th century. The town is of Roman origin....



Marc Signorile

City in Provence, France. Originally a Gallo-Greek settlement, it became a Roman colony in 46 bce and prospered as a maritime trading centre. It soon had a theatre, an amphitheatre, arenas and a circus. Archaeological finds now in the Musée d’Archéologie show that there was a lively interest in music at the time: the sarcophagus of Julia Tyrannia is decorated with carvings of two hydraulic organs, panpipes and a three-string kithara, and other sarcophagi preserved in the Alyscamps Roman cemetery are ornamented with reliefs showing kitharas and depictions of the aulos, barbitos, syrinx and hydraulic organ....



Robert Falck

French city. It is in Northern France, capital of the modern département of Pas-de-Calais, formerly the province of Artois. From the 12th century Arras was an important commercial centre and, increasingly in the 13th century, a bastion of the urban middle class. Much of its activity as a literary and musical centre originated with the Confrérie des Jongleurs et des Bourgeois d’Arras, a lay religious guild whose existence is documented from the last decade of the 12th century to about the mid-14th. During a plague in Arras (according to local legend) the Virgin Mary appeared separately to two ...


Philip A. Jamison

City in North Carolina (pop. 83,318; metropolitan area 417,012; 2010 US Census). Situated in the Blue Ridge Mountains of western North Carolina, at the crossing of early livestock drover roads, Asheville was incorporated in 1797. Since the early 1800s, when visitors arrived by stagecoach, this small Appalachian mountain city has been promoted as a tourist destination (“The Land of the Sky”) for those seeking the beauty and cooler temperatures of the Southern Highlands. As a result, Asheville has never been culturally deprived. In ...



Elvidio Surian and Caterina Pampaloni

Italian city. It is situated in the Umbria region. The earliest evidence of a flourishing musical activity in Assisi is given by a Franciscan breviary and two fragments with neumatic notation from the 13th century ( I-Ac 683, 694 and 696). Another source from the same century (...


Mark Aronovich Etinger

Town in Russia. Located near the mouth of the Volga, it became famous at the end of the 19th century as a centre of music in the south of Russia. Opera troupes and soloists came on tour, especially after the opening of the Winter Theatre (with seating for 700) in ...