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date: 14 October 2019

Botswana, Republic oflocked

  • Felicia M. Mundell
  • , revised by John Brearley


Country in southern Africa. It has an area of 581,730 km² and a population of 1·62 million (2000 estimate). Its main inhabitants are the Tswana who are related to the Sotho of Lesotho and the Pedi of South Africa. Other peoples in Botswana include the Kalanga peoples of the north, who are related to the Shona peoples of Zimbabwe and the Khoisan of the Kalahari desert, who were formerly called ‘Bushmen’ (and many of whom still prefer to be so-called) and later referred to as ‘San’, a term that is now considered by some to be even more derogatory. Variations in the terrain, climate and vegetation have tended to mould and modify the tribal styles of music-making to suit both the environment and the temperament of local peoples. Vegetation further restricts the construction of instruments to those types for which the raw materials can be found locally, so that drums are generally found in forest areas, flutes where there are reeds and unaccompanied choral singing in open grass plains. These types of music-making are all found in Botswana....

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Journal of the International Folk Music Council
Black Perspective in Music
African Music