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Nicholas Temperley

naturally, much less successful in the face of the ancient, developed religions of the region. In the Indian subcontinent the Methodists formed unions with other Protestant churches to form the Church of South India ( 1947 ) and similarly united churches in North India and Ceylon. American Methodists have also undertaken worldwide missions, concentrating their efforts more especially among Amerindians and in Latin America: the MEC Missionary Society was set up in 1819. American Methodist missions have been extensive in East Asia, with a particularly notable thrust in China


service in Hindi may well contain various musical elements, each remaining largely intact: North and South Indian melodies, Indian and Western instruments, Hindu and Moslem chant, and English hymns with their original tunes in four-part harmony. Some Christian musicians have attempted a fusion of rāgas with Gregorian chant. Some aboriginal groups in the east-central plateau, such as the Munda people, have reverted to the use of their own melodies, with drumming and dancing, but (as in Africa) with some perceptible traces of Western influence that distinguish it from the music



T. Frank Kennedy

Brazil, §II, 3(ii): Luso-Brazilian folk music traditions: Dances Byrd, William, §4: London, 1575–93 Camargo, Ignacio Castel, Louis-Bertrand Micronesia, §IV, 1: Mariana Islands: Northern Mariana Islands Charpentier, Marc-Antoine, §1: Life Pereira, Tomás Dance, §4(i): Late Renaissance and Baroque to 1730: Before 1630 Froberger, Johann Jacob, §1: Life Gelineau, Joseph Intermède Kircher, Athanasius Kraków, §2: 1596–1764 Latin America, §II, 2(ii): Iberian and mestizo folk music: South America Menestrier, Claude-François Schools, §II, 2: From the


Owen Wright, Christian Poché, and Amnon Shiloah

dervishes to attain union with God. (The term still designates certain types of folk dances.) In their attack against the Sufi mystical dance, the Islamic jurists likened it to non-Islamic genres such as the ‘Golden Calf’ dance or Christian dances, thus rendering it heretical ( bid‘a ). Religious prohibitions extended to other types of popular entertainment, with or without dance. The legists condemned pre-Islamic rituals which were enlivened with impressive music, such as the celebration of now-rūz (the ancient Persian New Year) and the different Nile festivals in