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Peter Dickinson, H. Wiley Hitchcock, and Keith E. Clifton

types of song (discussed elsewhere in this dictionary) include theater songs, popular songs, ragtime and jazz songs, folksongs, and work songs. 1. c 1750– c 1850. The earliest extant American art songs, signed “F. H.,” are contained (along with some 100 mid-18th-century English songs) in a manuscript copied out by Francis Hopkinson, an amateur musician from Philadelphia. The first of these to appear in the manuscript is “My days have been so wondrous free,” dated 1759 and long regarded as the first American secular song; the others initialed by Hopkinson – “The Garland


Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

themes of American Indians found in others of the time. The Padrone is an opera of modern life, reflecting the current social situation. Had it been produced, it might well have pointed the way to a new manner of operatic composition in the USA, one making the most of Americans’ traditional directness and realistic outlook. Instead the score was turned down by the Metropolitan Opera and a possible production in Chicago fell through when the impresario there suddenly died. The Padrone was performed, fittingly, by the New England Conservatory Opera Theater under the


Rodney H. Mill

revised by Frank J. Oteri and Susan Feder

operettas. Arthur Farwell and Henry F. Gilbert turned for inspiration respectively to the music of American Indians and black Americans. Farwell looked also to Russia and France for models that might liberate his work from Austro-German hegemony, but periodically returned to Indian themes, as in the fantasia Dawn ( 1904 ) and the Indian Suite ( 1944 ). Gilbert’s best-known orchestral works are the Comedy Overture on Negro Themes ( c 1906 ) and the symphonic poem The Dance in Place Congo ( c 1908 , rev. 1916 ); his last piece for large orchestra, Nocturne ( 1925–6



William Umbima

Traditional Musical Instruments of Kenya (Nairobi, 1986) V.A. Briginshaw : ‘Giriama and Digo Dance Styles’, AfM , 6/4 (1987), 144–54 G. Kubik : Malawian Music: a Framework for Analysis (Zomba, 1987) A. Seago : ‘East African Popular Music’, AfM , 6/4 (1987), 176–7 O.M. Khayota : The Abakuria of Kenya: the Art of Music and Dance (Nairobi, 1990) C.A. Kratz : ‘Persuasive Suggestions and Reassuring Promises: Emergent Parallelism and Dialogic Encouragement in Song’, Journal of American Folklore , 103 (1990), 42–67 E. Bradtke : ‘Off the Beaten Track: Songs the Swahili Sing


Robert Parker

percussion players. It requires various Indian drums, among them the teponaxtle , a two-tongued wooden slit-drum, and the huéhuetl , a large upright drum, as well as rasps made of wood and of bone, and a trombone simulating the conch trumpet. The ballet Caballos de vapor [H.P.] ( 1926–32 ) presents a large concentration of folk elements in a modern setting, where the sensual, ‘natural’ life of the tropics is contrasted with the industrialized society of the USA. The tropics are represented by two of the most popular Mexican dance types – the huapango and the zandunga


Charles Hamm, Robert Walser, Jacqueline Warwick, and Charles Hiroshi Garrett

viewed these entertainments as a purely American form of musical theater, and regarded minstrel songs as the first characteristically American music of any sort. In fact many minstrel songs were derived to some extent from music brought to the United States from the British Isles. “Jim Crow,” which Chase called the “first great international song hit of American music,” has melodic similarities to English folksong, as do many other early minstrel songs. A handful of them (including “Old Dan Tucker” and “De Boatman’s Dance”) are based on repetitive melodic figures



Robert Stevenson, Louise K. Stein, Albert Recasens, Belen Perez Castillo, Josep i Martí i Perez, Martin Cunningham, Ramón Pelinski, Jaume Aiats, Sílvia Martínez García, and Arcadio de Larrea Palacín

revised by Maricarmen Gómez

and in Latin America at family and public festivities until the 1970s (Gil García, A1958). The jerigonza is performed to a song which alludes to a friar’s exploits; the text is delivered at a fast patter to a repetitive melody in major tonality and ternary rhythm; meanwhile, members of the company are brought in turn into the dance (or perhaps rather the game), each at first following the one before, then dancing alone, then leading a successor. The jota, fandango and seguidillas are all widely known and transcend regional classification. All are dance-songs (see


James Holland and Janet K. Page

new importance within the orchestra and chamber ensemble. The rise of Latin American dance bands in the 1930s brought with it a new group of percussion instruments, of Afro-Cuban origin; these instruments and others of non-European cultures, such as the Asian and other non-Western instruments studied and used by Henry Cowell, made their way into the orchestra. Composers who have used percussion with special originality and effectiveness include Messiaen, Britten and Stockhausen. In jazz, dance bands, rock and pop music the percussion is most commonly handled by a single


Jeremy N. Grimshaw

PNM , 31 (1993), 124–63 E. Strickland : Minimalism: Origins (Bloomington, IN, 1993) K.R. Schwartz : Minimalists (London, 1996) K. Gann : American Music in the Twentieth Century (New York, 1997) A.C. Welch : “Meetings along the Edge: Svara and Tala in American Minimal Music,” American Music , 17 (1999), 179–99 K. Potter : Four Musical Minimalists (Cambridge, 2000) D. Claman : Western Composers and Indian Music (diss., Princeton U., 2001) F.J. Oteri : “Interview with La Monte Young and Marian Zazeela at the Dream House,” NewMusicBox (1 Oct 2003)


Denise Von Glahn and Michael Broyles

than in his three famous ballets. With their storylines, settings, costumes, dances, and music Billy the Kid ( 1938 ), Rodeo ( 1942 ), and Appalachian Spring ( 1943–4 ) made a unique American contribution to ballet repertoire. Not comfortable importing a European classical dance aesthetic to tell American stories, these works demanded that choreographer and composer reconsider the genre and what was acceptable as source material and choreographic movement. With their American spirit and sensibility, which recalled the instrumental works of Ives, Grofé, Still, and


Richard Middleton and Peter Manuel

tango, Turkish arabesk , Indonesian dangdut and mainstream Egyptian and Indian popular music ( see India, subcontinent of §VIII 1. ). In most cases, star singers were thus obliged to act (and often dance) as well, although in the 1940s Indian films adopted the ‘playback’ system, in which actors would mouth words in ‘lip-sync’ to songs separately recorded by professional singers. Meanwhile, film-related musics were marketed independently as phonograms. In some regions, such as Latin America and the Near East, television came to largely replace cinematic musicals


Robert E. Eliason

included the jew’s harp, which was traded to the Indians in great quantities; Aeolian harps (string instruments sounded by natural wind), advertised by Robert Horne in New York; and Benjamin Franklin 's armonica of 1762 , an important improvement on the musical glasses then popular in Europe. 2. 1780–1810. Although opera and concert performances were suppressed during and for a time after the Revolutionary War, military bands flourished, since they played for a variety of activities, including concerts and dancing. As theaters reopened and concerts resumed after the war


Allan Marett, Catherine J. Ellis, Margaret Gummow, Roger Covell, Gordon Kerry, and Graeme Smith

the modulation and thematic development found in notated dance music was modified to the simpler alternating binary structures of traditional dance music. Tunes to accompany these dances can still be found among older Australian rural players. The most popular instruments during this period were the single-action free-reed aerophones: the button accordion, the mouth organ and the Anglo-German concertina. Fiddle players were also common, playing the instrument in styles similar to those of British and American traditional fiddlers, using the first position and open


Imogen Fellinger, Julie Woodward, Dario Adamo, Silvia Arena, Robert Balchin, André Balog, Georgina Binns, Yael Bitrn, Zdravko Blažeković, Marco Capra, Leandro Donozo, Johan Eeckeloo, Massimo Gentili-Tedeschi, Veslemöy Heintz, Anne Ørbaek Jensen, Masakata Kanazawa, Simon Lancaster, Claus Røllum-Larsen, Lenita W.M. Nogueira, Jill Palmer, Ingrid Schubert, Martie Severt, John Shepard, Pamela Thompson, and Chris Walton

Clubs of America], 542 [Music Educ. League] Tempo and Television AUS27 Tempo di jazz I322 Tempo e musica I309 Temporadas de la música E163 Tennessee Musician US655 Teostory FIN61 Termine A350 Tesoro musical de ilustración del Clero E71 Tesoro sacro musical E71 [Padres Misioneros Hijos del Corazón de María], 111 Teutonia D109 Texas Jazz US1063 Texas Music Educator US543 Texas String News US671 Thalia A8; S35 THD NL253 Theater NL58 Theater-Agenturen A34 Theater-Almanach CZ3 Theater-Courier D344 Theater der Zeit


Nicholas Temperley

French operas; after 1790 Germany too became a prime source. Exotic settings and characters also became as popular as aggressively British ones. Harems appeared as early as 1758 in Arne’s Sultan , a negro in Dibdin’s The Padlock ( 1768 ), West Indians in Arnold’s Inkle and Yarico ( 1787 ) and American Indians in Storace’s The Cherokee ( 1794 ). The same composer’s Haunted Tower ( 1789 ) brought Gothic horror, complete with ghost, to the English stage, along with a clearly Mozartian idiom. In 1802 melodrama was added to the growing multiplicity of genres



T. Frank Kennedy

Brazil, §II, 3(ii): Luso-Brazilian folk music traditions: Dances Byrd, William, §4: London, 1575–93 Camargo, Ignacio Castel, Louis-Bertrand Micronesia, §IV, 1: Mariana Islands: Northern Mariana Islands Charpentier, Marc-Antoine, §1: Life Pereira, Tomás Dance, §4(i): Late Renaissance and Baroque to 1730: Before 1630 Froberger, Johann Jacob, §1: Life Gelineau, Joseph Intermède Kircher, Athanasius Kraków, §2: 1596–1764 Latin America, §II, 2(ii): Iberian and mestizo folk music: South America Menestrier, Claude-François Schools, §II, 2: From the



Alice Ray Catalyne

Palafox temporarily interrupted some performances in 1644 by vetoing the city government's plans to stage two comedias a lo divino for Corpus Christi in front of the cathedral, ‘as had been done since time immemorial’. Local colour was added to the scene by the great dances and pageants performed by Indians, who also participated in some church festivals. The secular juntas and bailes held by negroes were apparently so frequent and lively as to need periodic official regulation, and their influence is demonstrated by the frequent appearance in the villancico-cycles


Nicholas Temperley, Philip Olleson, Roger Bowers, H. Diack Johnstone, Richard Rastall, Peter Holman, Marie Axton, Richard Luckett, Andrew Wathey, Robert D. Hume, Simon McVeigh, Edward Croft-Murray, Arthur Jacobs, Gabriella Dideriksen, John Snelson, Cyril Ehrlich, Michael Musgrave, David C.H. Wright, Elizabeth Roche, Bernarr Rainbow, Anthony Kemp, Kathleen Dale, Peter Ward Jones, and William J. Conner

1903’, Black Perspective in Music , 11 (1983), 22–40 A. Lamb : ‘From Pinafore to Porter: United States–United Kingdom Interactions in Musical Theater, 1879–1929’, American Music , 4/1 (1986), 34–49 S. Porter : ‘English American Interaction in Musical Theater at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century’, American Music , 4/1 (1986), 6–19 T.L. Riis : ‘The Experience and Impact of Black Entertainers in England, 1895–1920’, American Music , 4/1 (1986), 50–58 D. Russell : Popular Music in England 1840–1914: a Social History (Manchester, 1987, 2/1997) Since 1945 E. Behr and



Carl Morey, Gordon E. Smith, Elaine Keillor, Jay Rahn, Geoffrey Whittall, and Rob Bowman

Athapaskan Fiddle Music and Square Dancing in Northeast Alaska and Northwest Canada (Urbana, IL, 1993) G.G. Valaskakis : ‘Dance me Inside: Pow Wow and Being “Indian”’, Fuse Magazine , 26/5–6 (1993), 39–44 See also amerindian and inuit traditions: see amerindian music anglican and episcopalian church music, §11: missions and the anglican communion bédard, hubert brunzema, gerhard canadian music reproduction rights agency cohen, leonard copyright, §IV, 2: canada creighton, helen diamond, beverley festival, §5: north american festivals c1850– c1900 fowke,


Alec Hyatt King

1813 Polly, or The Sequel to Beggar’s Opera, 1813 The Illusion, 1811 Harlequin Harper, 1813 Remorse, 1814 The Unknown Guest, 1815 The Conquest of Taranto, 1817 The Bride of Abydos, 1818 Abudah, 1819 The Lady and the Devil, 1820 Miscellaneous Various songs and duets; one set of country dances; a ballet, 1810 6 sonatas, A, E♭, F, C, E, G, 2vn, b (London, n.d.) Bibliography BDA DNB ( L.M. Middleton ) LS SartoriL M. Kelly : Reminiscences (London, 1826, 2/1826/ R with introduction by A.H. King); ed. R. Fiske (London, 1975) S.M. Ellis : The Life of Michael Kelly, Musician