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Siegfried Goslich, Rita H. Mead, Timothy Roberts, and Joanna C. Lee

a wide range of styles. (iii) Latin America. Latin American countries operate on the American model of private radio stations, although some public radio stations are directly run by government ministries. Amateur radio broadcasts began in 1921 , but the Mexican government never developed a national public radio system (although it owns a few national stations) and has allowed commercial, private stations to flourish. The first radio networks, XEW and XEQ, were both founded in 1938 with American capital as subsidiaries of RCA and CBS respectively


Handel could also offer an extra attraction at Covent Garden, the French dancer Marie Sallé and her company, for whom he provided newly written ballets in all the operas of the season. He opened on 9 November with a further revival of Il pastor fido , to which a new prologue featuring Sallé as the muse Terpsichore was added. Arianna was revived, and was followed on 18 December by Oreste , a pasticcio assembled by Handel himself from his own previous works, with new recitatives and dances. The wholly new compositions were Ariodante ( 8 January 1735 ) and Alcina


Owen Wright, Christian Poché, and Amnon Shiloah

dervishes to attain union with God. (The term still designates certain types of folk dances.) In their attack against the Sufi mystical dance, the Islamic jurists likened it to non-Islamic genres such as the ‘Golden Calf’ dance or Christian dances, thus rendering it heretical ( bid‘a ). Religious prohibitions extended to other types of popular entertainment, with or without dance. The legists condemned pre-Islamic rituals which were enlivened with impressive music, such as the celebration of now-rūz (the ancient Persian New Year) and the different Nile festivals in


Philip V. Bohlman

(Berkeley, 1990), 153–71 A.K. Rasmussen : Individuality and Musical Change in the Music of Arab Americans (diss., UCLA, 1991) A.K. Rasmussen : ‘“An Evening in the Orient”: the Middle Eastern Nightclub in America’, AsM , 23/2 (1992), 63–88 R.P. Pennamen : ‘All-Comprehending, United and Divine: the Myth of ilahiya Hymns in Sarajevo’, World of Music , 36/3 (1994), 49–67 C. Capwell : ‘Contemporary Manifestations of Yemeni-Derived Songs and Dance in Indonesia’, YTM , 27 (1995), 76–89 K. Robins and D. Morley : ‘Almanci, Yabanci’, Cultural


Bruno Nettl, Rob C. Wegman, Imogene Horsley, Michael Collins, Stewart A. Carter, Greer Garden, Robert E. Seletsky, Robert D. Levin, Will Crutchfield, John Rink, Paul Griffiths, and Barry Kernfeld

Earlier it interested music educators who used it to enhance music learning, and it has continued to play a role in music education in Europe and North America. Nevertheless, before the 1970s the field of musicology tended to treat improvisation as a ‘craft’, in contrast to the ‘art’ of composition. Case studies of improvisation began in ethnomusicology in the 1960s, concentrating on three repertories: jazz, Indian art music, and Iranian music. To a substantial extent approaches to the study of improvisation in other cultures have been informed by the types of studies


Paul Griffiths

for piano and orchestra ( 1971–4 ) was commissioned by Miss Alice Tully of New York, and Messiaen used the occasion of his first American commission to render the canyons and birds of Utah. Saint François d’Assise ( 1975–83 ), his unexpected single exercise in music theatre, was written for the Paris Opéra and followed swiftly by the Livre du Saint Sacrement ( 1984 ), a last organ work (commissioned by the city of Detroit and the American Guild of Organists). Finally, after several small pieces, came Eclairs sur l’Au-delà … ( 1988–92 ), scored for an enormous orchestra



Bo Lawergren, Hormoz Farhat, and Stephen Blum

damkesh ) plays a continuous drone. The drone function is inherent in the structure of the Baluchi doneli , a double duct flute related to those of the Indian subcontinent. The ‘male’ flute which plays the melody has up to 11 finger-holes, of which only the lower six are used: the ‘female’ has eight holes, some filled with wax to produce the appropriate drone. Double clarinets are played mainly to accompany dancing, usually with dohol accompaniment. They are found in Khorasan, the Zagros mountains and the Gulf region. Two pipes of equal length (about 15–20 cm) are


Peter Kleiner, E.P. Skone James, Gavin McFarlane, and Melville B. Nimmer

association, the same year as the Performing Right Society was founded in Britain. A performing right gave a collecting society in America enormous scope, for although the territory was large communications were good, and the population was spread much more evenly than in Australia and Canada, so that collection in the larger towns was practical. As various types of popular music spread across the country, there were countless performances in dance halls and clubs, restaurants and cafés which had previously been beyond the control of an individual right-owner but which a


Annegret Fauser, Patrick Gillis, and Hugh Macdonald

Benedictine order but has only his street entertainment skills to offer to the Almighty, while around him the monks are poets, artists and musicians. It is the monastery’s corpulent cook, Boniface, who persuades Jean that all skills are equal sub specie aeternitatis , even cooking, even dancing. The musical pastiche is here imprecisely medieval/Renaissance, with a charming parody of a choral rehearsal and a lively street scene in the first act. At the New York première the tenor role of Jean was sung by the soprano Mary Garden, by which Massenet confessed he was ‘somewhat


Hugh Ottaway

revised by Alain Frogley

Hugh the Drover, or Love in the Stocks (romantic ballad op, 2, H. Child), 1910–14, last rev. 1956 London, His Majesty’s, 14 July 1924 On Christmas Night (masque with dancing, singing and miming, A. Bolm and Vaughan Williams, after C. Dickens), 1926 Chicago, Eighth Street, 26 Dec 1926 Sir John in Love (op, 4, Vaughan Williams, after W. Shakespeare), 1924–8 London, RCM, 21 March 1929 Job (masque for dancing, G. Keynes and G. Raverat, after W. Blake), 1927–30 London, Cambridge, 5 July 1931 The Poisoned Kiss (romantic extravaganza, 3, E. Sharp, after R. Garnett), 1927–9



Harold S. Powers, Frans Wiering, James Porter, James Cowdery, Richard Widdess, Ruth Davis, Marc Perlman, Stephen Jones, and Allan Marett

Aspects of Indian Music , ed. S. Mutatkar (New Delhi, 1987), 13–18 S. Ramanatham : ‘The Concept of the Rāga in Carnatic Music’, Aspects of Indian Music , ed. S. Mutatkar (New Delhi, 1987), 9–12 D.R. Widdess : ‘Sugar, Candy and Treacle: History and the Concept of Rāga in Indian Music’, Ethnomusicology and the Historical Dimension , ed. M.L. Philipp (Ludwigsburg, 1989), 71–81 H.S. Powers : ‘Reinterpretations of Tradition in Hindustani Music: Omkarnath Thankur contra Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande’, The Traditional Indian Theory and Practice of Music and Dance , ed


Vincent Duckles, Jann Pasler, Glenn Stanley, Thomas Christensen, Barbara H. Haggh, Robert Balchin, Laurence Libin, Tilman Seebass, Janet K. Page, Lydia Goehr, Bojan Bujic, Eric F. Clarke, Susan McClary, Jean Gribenski, Carolyn Gianturco, Pamela M. Potter, David Fallows, Miloš Velimirović, Katy Romanou, Gary Tomlinson, Gerard Béhague, Masakata Kanazawa, and Peter Platt

to doctoral study in Europe or North America. The work of the younger generation of scholars has resulted in publications of source and thematic catalogues, editions, recordings, and critical analyses of colonial and 19th-century music. (ii) Ethnomusicology. Corrêa de Azevedo observed that ethnomusicological research preceded historical musicology throughout Latin America. The first students of native American music were the numerous European travellers, missionaries, and scientists who had varying degrees of contact with Indian and mestizo cultures during the colonial


Hugh Davies

the first organ in Britain with electric action – at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The first American patent for electric action in organs was taken out in 1869 by Hilborne Lewis Roosevelt , who around 1871 also briefly collaborated with Barker in Dublin; he built a demonstration model in 1869 and a commercial instrument in 1876. Also in 1876 Schmoele Bros. of Philadelphia presented an electric action orchestrion, the Electromagnetic Orchestra, at the American Centennial Exposition. Experiments by Eberhard Friedrich Walcker between 1858 and the early


Lydia Goehr, F.E. Sparshott, Andrew Bowie, and Stephen Davies

simple psychological components by a strict causal necessity. Such writers as Mattheson ( 1739 ) offer elaborate analyses of the emotions along these lines, with detailed specifications of the corresponding musical devices. The resulting emotive packages are mediated by dance forms, since in a dance a complete musical complex, often with ethnic and hence ethical connotations, is already wedded to gesture and thus as it were integrated into a way of life. On examination, the mediation proves somewhat programmatic: the musical specifications could be at best sketchily



Jeremy Montagu, Howard Mayer Brown, Jaap Frank, and Ardal Powell

transmitted to North America. The French style became dominant, and the recordings, teaching and concert tours of French performers hastened the change from wooden Boehm-system flutes to silver flutes such as those made by Louis Lot. American firms founded by W.S. Haynes and V.Q. Powell began to make French-style flutes in the USA in the first decade of the century. These have set the standard both in the USA and, from the 1930s, in Japan, where Koichi Muramatsu began to make flutes inspired by Haynes and Powell. After World War II these and other American and Japanese makers