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Geoffrey Chew, Thomas J. Mathiesen, Thomas B. Payne, and David Fallows

MO, 1959) A.J. Sabol , ed.: Songs and Dances for the Stuart Masque (Providence, RI, 1959) W. Salmen : ‘European Song (1300–1530)’, NOHM , 3 (1960), 349–80 Chanson & Madrigal 1480–1530: Cambridge , MA , 1961 J. Stevens : Music & Poetry in the Early Tudor Court (London, 1961, repr. with corrections 1979) A. Verchaly , ed.: Airs de court pour voix et luth (1603–1643) (Paris, 1961) P. Brett : ‘The English Consort Song, 1570–1625’, PRMA , 88 (1961–2), 73–88 H.M. Brown : Music in the French Secular Theater, 1400–1550 (Cambridge, MA, 1963) F.W. Sternfeld


Mervyn Cooke

Outside Europe few countries initially escaped the influence of Hollywood productions, and early film-making in Latin America, Australia and North Africa produced pale imitations of American genres, chiefly westerns. Early Chinese cinema was partly backed by American funding, while Indian silent films were monopolized by the British. From the advent of sound in 1931 , Indian cinema has consistently employed elements of traditional song and dance as a commercial attraction, even in violent action films, and synthetic styles blending Asian and Western techniques became



James Porter, Jeremy Barlow, Graham Johnson, Eric Sams, and Nicholas Temperley

(from Lat. ballare : ‘to dance’ ) Term used for a short popular or traditional song that normally frames a narrative element. Scholars of the term’s history and origin take it to signify a relatively concise composition known throughout Europe since the late Middle Ages, spreading later to the New World, notably the Americas: it combines narrative, dramatic dialogue and lyrical passages in strophic form sung to a rounded tune, and often includes a recurrent refrain. Performance is predominantly by solo singers, though choral and dance elements are known in some


Hugo Cole

secondary schools; works as diverse as Gluck’s Alceste and My Fair Lady have been performed with enthusiasm and understanding, while Weill’s Threepenny Opera is more popular in English and American schools than Der Jasager. Children’s operas do not transpose readily from one environment to another. Even Copland’s brilliant and individual The Second Hurricane is so American in spirit and in the language of its libretto as to be almost unperformable in Britain, though Jonathan Elkus is among those who have had success on both sides of the Atlantic. Yet the composers


Geoffrey Block, Kate Van Winkle Keller, Anne Dhu McLucas, Sandra Jean Graham, Orly Leah Krasner, Todd Decker, Paul R. Laird, Jessica Sternfeld, Garrett Eisler, John Koegel, Nancy Rao, Charles Hamm, and William A. Everett

ballads and other popular tunes. African American theater also began in New York under the aegis of William Henry Brown (a black West Indian and former ship’s steward), who had opened a Pleasure garden in his backyard in 1821 to offer entertainment to black audiences. He soon built the American Theatre on Mercer Street, and drew curious whites by featuring all-black casts in the same blend of plays and musical acts found in white theaters and nurturing the talents of James Hewlett, the first major black actor in America. In Shakespeare plays presented by both black


Michael Birenbaum Quintero, Jason Stanyek, Melissa Gonzalez, Jorge Arévalo Mateus, Mario Rey, Sydney Hutchinson, Lois Wilcken, Roberto Avant-Mier, John Koegel, and Edgardo Díaz Díaz

expression in the Mexican American/Chicano community, especially in representing Latino perspectives during the current contentious political debates on immigration. See also Border music; Chicano Movement Music; Corrido; Musical theater; ethnic musical theater ; Roman Catholic Church; Southwest; Tejano music; and Texas mexican orchestra . 10. Puerto Rican music. From the heyday of danza to the more recent popularity of salsa and reggaeton, Puerto Rican music has been influential and innovative in areas such as dance and popular music as well


Israel J. Katz

(Foz); that it is derived from the jota aragonesa (Larramendi, Ribera), although Ribera also proposed an earlier Arabic origin; and that the Arabic fandûra (guitar) may be a possible etymological source (Pottier). Yet the two prevailing theories point to either a West Indian or Latin American origin ( Diccionario de Autoridades ), although Puyana strongly suggests that the fandango indiano came from Mexico; (see also Osorio); or a North African origin (Moreau de Saint-Méry). One must distinguish between the varied provincial forms that the classical fandango


Peter Dickinson, H. Wiley Hitchcock, and Keith E. Clifton

types of song (discussed elsewhere in this dictionary) include theater songs, popular songs, ragtime and jazz songs, folksongs, and work songs. 1. c 1750– c 1850. The earliest extant American art songs, signed “F. H.,” are contained (along with some 100 mid-18th-century English songs) in a manuscript copied out by Francis Hopkinson, an amateur musician from Philadelphia. The first of these to appear in the manuscript is “My days have been so wondrous free,” dated 1759 and long regarded as the first American secular song; the others initialed by Hopkinson – “The Garland


Rodney H. Mill

revised by Frank J. Oteri and Susan Feder

operettas. Arthur Farwell and Henry F. Gilbert turned for inspiration respectively to the music of American Indians and black Americans. Farwell looked also to Russia and France for models that might liberate his work from Austro-German hegemony, but periodically returned to Indian themes, as in the fantasia Dawn ( 1904 ) and the Indian Suite ( 1944 ). Gilbert’s best-known orchestral works are the Comedy Overture on Negro Themes ( c 1906 ) and the symphonic poem The Dance in Place Congo ( c 1908 , rev. 1916 ); his last piece for large orchestra, Nocturne ( 1925–6



Mark Tucker and Travis A. Jackson

kitchen radio. It reached a wider populace as musicians transported it from large urban centers into small towns and rural areas. Criss-crossing North America by bus, car, and train, big bands played single-night engagements in dance halls, ballrooms, theaters, hotels, nightclubs, country clubs, military bases, and outdoor pavilions. They attracted hordes of teenagers who came to hear the popular songs of the day and dance the jitterbug, lindy hop, and Susie Q. The strenuous touring schedule of big bands was far from glamorous. Nevertheless, musicians who played in these