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Richard Middleton and Peter Manuel

tango, Turkish arabesk , Indonesian dangdut and mainstream Egyptian and Indian popular music ( see India, subcontinent of §VIII 1. ). In most cases, star singers were thus obliged to act (and often dance) as well, although in the 1940s Indian films adopted the ‘playback’ system, in which actors would mouth words in ‘lip-sync’ to songs separately recorded by professional singers. Meanwhile, film-related musics were marketed independently as phonograms. In some regions, such as Latin America and the Near East, television came to largely replace cinematic musicals


Michael Birenbaum Quintero, Jason Stanyek, Melissa Gonzalez, Jorge Arévalo Mateus, Mario Rey, Sydney Hutchinson, Lois Wilcken, Roberto Avant-Mier, John Koegel, and Edgardo Díaz Díaz

expression in the Mexican American/Chicano community, especially in representing Latino perspectives during the current contentious political debates on immigration. See also Border music; Chicano Movement Music; Corrido; Musical theater; ethnic musical theater ; Roman Catholic Church; Southwest; Tejano music; and Texas mexican orchestra . 10. Puerto Rican music. From the heyday of danza to the more recent popularity of salsa and reggaeton, Puerto Rican music has been influential and innovative in areas such as dance and popular music as well


Hip hop  

Felicia M. Miyakawa

2006; Schloss, 2009 ). As part of this resurgence of interest in oral history collection, certain hip hop legends, such as dancer Jorge “Popmaster Fabel” Pabon, are increasingly in demand on the lecture circuit. Some have taught hip-hop-based courses in various university and college settings. A third scholarly trend involves a general revisionist project, challenging early histories of hip hop that tended to center around African American male subjects without revealing more nuanced understandings of hip hop’s early diversity. Such work has sought to critique and


Charles Hamm, Robert Walser, Jacqueline Warwick, and Charles Hiroshi Garrett

viewed these entertainments as a purely American form of musical theater, and regarded minstrel songs as the first characteristically American music of any sort. In fact many minstrel songs were derived to some extent from music brought to the United States from the British Isles. “Jim Crow,” which Chase called the “first great international song hit of American music,” has melodic similarities to English folksong, as do many other early minstrel songs. A handful of them (including “Old Dan Tucker” and “De Boatman’s Dance”) are based on repetitive melodic figures



Carl Morey, Gordon E. Smith, Elaine Keillor, Jay Rahn, Geoffrey Whittall, and Rob Bowman

Athapaskan Fiddle Music and Square Dancing in Northeast Alaska and Northwest Canada (Urbana, IL, 1993) G.G. Valaskakis : ‘Dance me Inside: Pow Wow and Being “Indian”’, Fuse Magazine , 26/5–6 (1993), 39–44 See also amerindian and inuit traditions: see amerindian music anglican and episcopalian church music, §11: missions and the anglican communion bédard, hubert brunzema, gerhard canadian music reproduction rights agency cohen, leonard copyright, §IV, 2: canada creighton, helen diamond, beverley festival, §5: north american festivals c1850– c1900 fowke,


Ronnie Pugh

revised by Travis D. Stimeling

Feb 15, 1975 ). American country music fiddler. Taking up the fiddle at an early age to entertain neighbors at dances and house parties, Robertson left home at the age of 16 to work as a professional fiddler, performing at first in medicine shows throughout the Indian Territory. He became adept at trick fiddling, a useful skill at fiddlers’ contests. In 1906 he settled near Amarillo, Texas, and tuned pianos for the Total Line Music Company. He continued to play in fiddlers’ contests, and for a time accompanied silent films in Texas theaters. In April 1922 Robertson


John Edward Hasse

three-note motif. It became one of the most successful ragtime compositions, appearing 31 times on 78 r.p.m. recordings alone, and entered the aural tradition of country, string-band and bluegrass music. His Iola ( 1906 ) helped create a fashion for ‘Indian intermezzi’ – piano pieces that supposedly evoked American Indian culture; words were later added, and the piece eventually sold more than 1,200,000 copies. Several of Johnson’s rags became popular during the ragtime revival of the 1970s and 80s. In 1919 he wrote the successful song, Sweet and Low , but by the


Marcello Piras

married again. In 1923 the Syncopators made it to New York; re-christened “The Washingtonians,” they landed a four-year job in floor shows with singers and dancers at the Hollywood Inn, later Club Kentucky. Their earliest records ( 1924 ) showcase bubber Miley (cornet), a major influence on Ellington, alongside clumsy, immature arrangements. A musician, artist, and lyricist, Ellington felt drawn to musical theater, and resorted to studying composition and orchestration with Cook and Vodery. His first show was Chocolate Kiddies ( 1925 ). Meanwhile, his Club Kentucky



Mark Tucker and Travis A. Jackson

kitchen radio. It reached a wider populace as musicians transported it from large urban centers into small towns and rural areas. Criss-crossing North America by bus, car, and train, big bands played single-night engagements in dance halls, ballrooms, theaters, hotels, nightclubs, country clubs, military bases, and outdoor pavilions. They attracted hordes of teenagers who came to hear the popular songs of the day and dance the jitterbug, lindy hop, and Susie Q. The strenuous touring schedule of big bands was far from glamorous. Nevertheless, musicians who played in these