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Gerard Béhague, Jonathan D. Hill, and Walter Guido

entertainment music: some are traditional and connected with European art dance music; others are derived from music which in Europe served as simple entertainment and which continued to do so in Latin America; and others are relatively modern ( danzas , merengues ). Four of these types are the pasaje , golpe , corrido and punto. The first two accompany the joropo , Venezuela’s national dance, which is performed by independent couples: each couple may use different steps, but the dance always starts with the valseo (waltz step). More recently the name ‘joropo’


Stephen Banfield

revised by Jeremy Dibble

(1899): You'll love me yet, Canoe Song, A blood-red ring hung round the moon, Sweet evenings come and go love, As the moon's soft splendour, Elëanore 45 6 American Lyrics, low v (E.W. Wilcox, J.G. Whittier, W. Whitman) (1903): O thou mine other stronger part, O praise me not, Her love, The dark eye has left us, O ship that saileth, Beat beat drums 50 3 Song-poems (T. Moore) (1905): Dreaming for Ever, The Young Indian Maid, Beauty and Song 57 6 Sorrow Songs (C. Rossetti), 1904: Oh what comes over the sea, When I am dead my dearest, Oh roses for the flush of youth, She


Laurence Libin, Arnold Myers, Barbara Lambert, and Albert R. Rice

Flutist Quarterly , xv ( 1990 ), 5–11 R. Sheldon: ‘The Musical Instrument Collections of the Library of Congress’, Flutist Quarterly , xvi/3 ( 1991 ) Music, Theater, Dance: an Illustrated Guide ( 1993 ) R. Hargrave: Amati, Stradivari & Guarneri: the Library of Congress Violins ( 1997 ) National Museum of American History (formerly Museum of History and Technology) Smithsonian Institution: c 5000 American and European art, traditional, jazz and popular, incl. 268 keyboards and Hugo Worch (keyboards), part of Mrs. W.D. Frishmuth, and Janos Scholz (cello bow) c


Raoul F. Camus

this article deals mainly with the history of such ensembles in the United States ( See also Circus Music; Military music; and Wind Ensemble.) In its more general sense, the term “band” is used to describe other vernacular ensembles, such as banjo, dance, jazz, jug, mummers, rock, steel, string, and theater bands. For information on such groups see Country music; Folk music; Jazz; Pop; and Rock. The terms “band” and “orchestra” were often used interchangeably in the past but have become increasingly distinct. Bands, descended from the medieval “high”


Barbara B. Smith, Adrienne L. Kaeppler, Artur Simon, Don Niles, Hugo Zemp, Jane Mink Rossen, Mervyn McLean, Peter Crowe, Derek A. Rawcliffe, Jean-Michel Beaudet, and Kaye Glamuzina

Different types include meke iwau (a men’s club dance), meke wesi or meke moto (a spear dance for men) and vakara , all kinds of meke ni valu (war dance); vakamalolo (a sitting dance); seasea (a standing dance for women); meke iri (a fan dance); ruasa (a standing dance for men) and meke ni yaqona (a dance performed as part of ceremonial kava drinking). Casual festive occasions may include performances of meke vāgalu (a dance with rhythmic accompaniment only) and meke vālasalasa (a comic dance), two forms to which little enduring value is attributed


Gulbat Toradze

became widely known in 1938 after the performance of his ballet Mtebis guli (‘The Heart of the Mountains’) (in its first version of 1936 as Mzechabuki ) in Leningrad. It was staged by the great dancer V. Chabukiani who also took the leading role. Mtebis guli laid the foundations of Georgian ballet. Using folk material in the score, he blended the Georgian folk dancing tradition with the rigours of classical choreography. Lyrical, poetic and heroic themes predominate and the score is suffused with rich local colour. Mtebis guli was staged at many theatres of the


Robert Stevenson

the Indian populace assimilated European music more readily than any other facet of imported culture, the cathedrals at Mexico City, Puebla and elsewhere could boast of music that rivalled the best in Spain only a half-century after the Conquest. As early as 1530 an Indian choir trained by Pedro de Gante ( c 1480–1572 , a Franciscan from Ghent) sang every Sunday and feast day at Mexico City Cathedral (founded 1528 ). Only a year later Bishop Juan de Zumárraga ( 1468–1548 ) praised the skill of Indian polyphonic singers and in 1532 lauded the deft Indian copyists


Stephen Ruppenthal

revised by David Patterson

Rosenboom, David ( b Fairfield, IA , Sept 9, 1947 ). American composer , performer and designer and maker of electronic instruments. He studied music at the University of Illinois ( 1965–7 , composition with Binkerd and Martirano, electronic and computer techniques with Hiller) and also privately, learning various instruments, conducting and Indian music. In 1967–8 he went to the Center for Creative and Performing Arts at SUNY, Buffalo, and from there to New York University as a guest lecturer ( 1968–70 ). He was director of computer and electronic



Mark Tucker and Travis A. Jackson

kitchen radio. It reached a wider populace as musicians transported it from large urban centers into small towns and rural areas. Criss-crossing North America by bus, car, and train, big bands played single-night engagements in dance halls, ballrooms, theaters, hotels, nightclubs, country clubs, military bases, and outdoor pavilions. They attracted hordes of teenagers who came to hear the popular songs of the day and dance the jitterbug, lindy hop, and Susie Q. The strenuous touring schedule of big bands was far from glamorous. Nevertheless, musicians who played in these



Hugh de Ferranti, Shigeo Kishibe, David W. Hughes, W. Adriaansz, Robin Thompson, Charles Rowe, Donald P. Berger, W. Malm, W.P. Malm, David Waterhouse, Allan Marett, Richard Emmert, Fumio Koizumi, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, Masakata Kanazawa, Linda Fujie, and Elizabeth Falconer

and closing the hands to varying degrees. A similar technique is found among the North American Inuit. The word rimse originated in the sound of stamping feet and clashing swords of the niwen-horippa , or ‘goosestep march’. This was performed on the occasion of tribal calamities in order to exorcize evil spirits. Ainu dancing is divided roughly into two categories. The first is non-descriptive dance with stylized movement patterns: rimse is sung to accompany this type of dance in responsorial fashion, with a leader ( iekey ) and a following group. On rare occasions


Tilman Seebass

resist depiction since their main feature is a process in time. By contrast, dance types consisting of a series of positions lend themselves easily to depiction, since each position captures the essence of the meaning of the choreutic moment. Such dances are found in the courtly milieu in Asia and in the European ballet. Some Asian dance cultures – probably as a result of the cultivation of dance drama – have equated dance positions with emotions and thoughts. The most prominent example is the Indian rasa system, precisely described emotions formalized in positions of


Lionel Carley, Robert Anderson, and Anthony Payne

Society, cond. H. Haym, Elberfeld, Stadthalle, 13 Nov 1897 Appalachia: American Rhapsody, orch, 1896 LPO, cond. E. Downes, London, Royal Festival Hall, 10 Dec 1986 Piano Concerto, c, 3 movts, 1897 J. Buths, Elberfeld Concert Society, cond. Haym, Elberfeld, Stadthalle, 24 Oct 1904 rev. 1 movt, 1906 Theodor Szántó, Queen’s Hall Orch, cond. H. Wood, London, Queen’s Hall, 22 Oct 1907 La ronde se déroule, sym. poem after H. Rode, 1899 cond. Hertz, St James’s Hall, 30 May 1899 rev. 1901 as Lebenstanz [Life’s Dance], cond. Buths, Düsseldorf, 21 Jan 1904 rev. 1912, Berlin PO, cond


John Tyrrell

small circus is announced with a brief, colourfully orchestrated march (trumpet, piccolo, percussion). In his opening patter the Circus Master describes his troupe: the dancer Esmeralda, an ‘Indian’ and, their greatest attraction, an American bear who will perform a can-can with Esmeralda. Their wares are further displayed in the brilliant skočná (a fast 2/4 folkdance). But there is a crisis: the Indian announces to the Circus Master that the ‘bear’ has got too drunk to appear. They need a substitute and come upon Vašek, seen admiring Esmeralda’s legs. Esmeralda begins


Donna K. Anderson

voice and piano, based on five- and six-tone scales. Published in 1917 as Five Poems of Ancient China and Japan op.10, they were the first works in Griffes's ‘oriental’ style. Among the artists who were important to this aspect of his career were the Ballets Russes dancer Adolf Bolm, the Japanese dancer and pantomimist Michio Ito and the soprano Eva Gauthier. Gauthier spent several years in the orient, and she gave Griffes some Japanese melodies which she had copied in Japan. These he used for Sho-jo , a Japanese pantomime in one scene, commissioned by Bolm for the


Kyle Gann and Kurt Stone

City Portrait (ballet), New York, 1940 Fantasy and Caprice, vn, orch, 1940 The Great American Goof (ballet excerpts), 1940 Rhapsody, va, orch, 1940 Vn Conc., 1940 Downtown Suite, 1942 Sym., 1942 [1st and 2nd movts withdrawn, last movt entitled An Adventure] The 1930s, sym., 1945 Dedication in Memory of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1945 Statements in Jazz, cl, dance orch, 1945 Jazz Cl Conc., cl, jazz band, 1946 The Promised Land, sym., 1947 Street


Hugo Cole

secondary schools; works as diverse as Gluck’s Alceste and My Fair Lady have been performed with enthusiasm and understanding, while Weill’s Threepenny Opera is more popular in English and American schools than Der Jasager. Children’s operas do not transpose readily from one environment to another. Even Copland’s brilliant and individual The Second Hurricane is so American in spirit and in the language of its libretto as to be almost unperformable in Britain, though Jonathan Elkus is among those who have had success on both sides of the Atlantic. Yet the composers


Israel J. Katz

Chico Toque { 18. Intermedio 5. Andulusian gypsy origin 12. Grande 19. Chico 6. Hispano-American origin Baile { 13. Intermedio 20. Fell into disuse 7. Arabic influence 14. Chico The earlier inclusion of the alboreá (or alboleá ), a Gypsy wedding song, is questionable as is the case of the extremely popular Gypsy songs cachuca , mosca and panadero. Songs and dances which have been associated with the repertory include the bambera , bolera , camparsa , cantes de trilla (work songs)



John William Johnson

and I.M. Lewis : Somali Poetry: an Introduction (Oxford, 1964) P. Battista : Somalia: storia, folklore, tradizioni, poemi, poesie, canti (Naples, 1969) A. Artan : Somali Folklore, Music, Dance, Song (Mogadishu, ?1970) J.W. Johnson : ‘The Family of Miniature Genres in Somali Oral Poetry’, Folklore Forum , 5/3 (1972), 79–99 O.A. Nuh : ‘Songs that Derive from Folk Dance’, New Era , 7 (1972), 19–21 J.W. Johnson : Heellooy Heelleellooy: the Development of the Genre Heello in Modern Somali Poetry (Bloomington, IN, 1974) H.S. Mumin : Leopard among the Women:


John Baily

used to accompany singing and to play rhythms for dancing. Other drums are the domain of men. A large double-headed frame drum called dohol is played with sticks and used to accompany the sornā. Both instruments are played exclusively by barber-musicians. The goblet-shaped single-headed zirbaghali (‘under the arm’) is usually made of pottery, though wooden specimens can also be found. This drum is of Middle Eastern provenance. The two-headed barrel drum, dohol or doholak , is closely related to the Indian drum of the same name, and is used mainly for Pashtun


Alan P. Merriam, Kishilo W’itunga, and Kazadi Wa Mukuna

maringa is a children's song. In Katanga, the maringa was a mixed dance performed in a circle without partners, whereas in Kinshasa it was a couple dance. Its characteristic feature – hip movements shifting the body weight from one leg to another – is similar to that of the rumba. The maringa rhythmic pattern is illustrated in ex.1 . Ex.1 Maringa rhythmic pattern By the late 1940s, the brass band tradition had reached its peak and began to be overshadowed by Latin American sounds introduced to the populace through travelling musical groups, imported