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Keith Polk, Janet K. Page, Stephen J. Weston, Armin Suppan, Raoul F. Camus, Trevor Herbert, Anthony C. Baines, J. Bradford Robinson, and Allan F. Moore

Feeding of a Community British Brass Band (Farmingdale, NY 1986) M.H. and R.M. Hazen : The Music Men: an Illustrated History of the Brass Bands in America, 1800–1920 (Washington DC, 1987) N.M. Hosler : The Brass Band Movement in North America: a Survey of Brass Bands in the United States and Canada (diss., Ohio State U., 1992) E: Jazz and rock bands A. Lange : Arranging for the Modern Dance Orchestra (New York, 1926) G. Miller : Glen Miller's Method for Orchestral Arranging (New York, 1943) L.G. Feather : The Book of Jazz: a Guide to


Bruno Nettl, Rob C. Wegman, Imogene Horsley, Michael Collins, Stewart A. Carter, Greer Garden, Robert E. Seletsky, Robert D. Levin, Will Crutchfield, John Rink, Paul Griffiths, and Barry Kernfeld

Earlier it interested music educators who used it to enhance music learning, and it has continued to play a role in music education in Europe and North America. Nevertheless, before the 1970s the field of musicology tended to treat improvisation as a ‘craft’, in contrast to the ‘art’ of composition. Case studies of improvisation began in ethnomusicology in the 1960s, concentrating on three repertories: jazz, Indian art music, and Iranian music. To a substantial extent approaches to the study of improvisation in other cultures have been informed by the types of studies


Laurence Libin

ethnologique à l’histoire de la musique instrumentale (Paris, 1936/ R 1968) C. Sachs : The History of Musical Instruments (New York, 1940) L. Williams : The Dancing Chimpanzee: a Study of the Origins of Primitive Music (London, 1967) M.J. Kartomi : On Concepts and Classification of Musical Instruments (Chicago, 1990) L. Libin : ‘Progress, Adaptation, and the Evolution of Musical Instruments’, Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society , vol.26 (2000), 187–213 N. Wallin , B. Merker , and S. Brown , eds: The Origins of Music (Cambridge, MA, 2000) L. Libin



David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, Peter Holman, Karel Moens, Robin Stowell, Anthony Barnett, Matt Glaser, Alyn Shipton, Peter Cooke, Alastair Dick, and Chris Goertzen

R. Stevenson : Music in Aztec and Inca Territory (Berkeley, 1968/ R ) B. Breathnach : Folk Music and Dances of Ireland (Dublin, 1971, 2/1977) A. Jabbour : disc notes, American Fiddle Tunes , Library of Congress AFS L62 (1971) E. Southern : Readings in Black American Music (New York, 1971, 2/1983) L. Burman-Hall : Southern American Folk Fiddling: Context and Style (diss., U. of Princeton, 1974) L. Shankar : The Art of Violin Accompaniment in South Indian Classical Vocal Music (diss., Wesleyan U., 1974) B. Traerup : ‘Albanian Singers in Kosovo’, Festschrift


Percival Price, Charles Bodman Rae, and James Blades

made of gold and silver alloys in smaller sizes. Generally in South America the crotal was both a ritual object and an article of dress. In Peru it was attached to the leg to mark rhythms in dances. Metal crotals were circulated widely along trade routes from Argentina to what is now the central USA, being particularly attractive to peoples without indigenous metal. For their ceremonies the Aztecs imported great numbers of crotals from subject peoples. Metal open bells were also made in South America, but were less widely used than the crotal. They were made in several


Hugh Davies

the first organ in Britain with electric action – at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The first American patent for electric action in organs was taken out in 1869 by Hilborne Lewis Roosevelt , who around 1871 also briefly collaborated with Barker in Dublin; he built a demonstration model in 1869 and a commercial instrument in 1876. Also in 1876 Schmoele Bros. of Philadelphia presented an electric action orchestrion, the Electromagnetic Orchestra, at the American Centennial Exposition. Experiments by Eberhard Friedrich Walcker between 1858 and the early


James Holland and Janet K. Page

new importance within the orchestra and chamber ensemble. The rise of Latin American dance bands in the 1930s brought with it a new group of percussion instruments, of Afro-Cuban origin; these instruments and others of non-European cultures, such as the Asian and other non-Western instruments studied and used by Henry Cowell, made their way into the orchestra. Composers who have used percussion with special originality and effectiveness include Messiaen, Britten and Stockhausen. In jazz, dance bands, rock and pop music the percussion is most commonly handled by a single


Laurence Libin, Arnold Myers, Barbara Lambert, and Albert R. Rice

Flutist Quarterly , xv ( 1990 ), 5–11 R. Sheldon: ‘The Musical Instrument Collections of the Library of Congress’, Flutist Quarterly , xvi/3 ( 1991 ) Music, Theater, Dance: an Illustrated Guide ( 1993 ) R. Hargrave: Amati, Stradivari & Guarneri: the Library of Congress Violins ( 1997 ) National Museum of American History (formerly Museum of History and Technology) Smithsonian Institution: c 5000 American and European art, traditional, jazz and popular, incl. 268 keyboards and Hugo Worch (keyboards), part of Mrs. W.D. Frishmuth, and Janos Scholz (cello bow) c



Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Joan Rimmer, Robert Evans, William Taylor, Cristina Bordas, Cheryl Ann Fulton, John M. Schechter, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Hannelore Devaere, and Mary McMaster

San Juan festivities in 1863 ) details how the harp was carried in a procession of dancers, the instrument being played as it rested on a boy’s back, while a second musician beat it rhythmically. Late 19th-century Ecuadorian Indians also used the harp in a radically different context: for a child’s wake. In the style of the late 19th-century Quito School, Joaquín Pinto’s painting Velorio de indios depicts a highland Ecuadorian Indian home, where a harpist plays as one couple dances in the patio and the corpse of a winged figure – probably a child – is visible on a


Laurence Libin and Albert R. Rice

Quarterly , xvi/3 ( 1991 , 19–23); Music, Theater, Dance: an Illustrated Guide ( 1993 ); R. Hargrave: Amati, Stradivari & Guarneri: the Library of Congress Violins ( 1997 ). Washington, DC. National Park Service, US Department of the Interior: western art and traditional, ethnological, archaeological, esp. Native American. Washington, DC. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of African Art: 119, mainly percussion. Washington, DC. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History: c 5000 American and European art, traditional, jazz, and popular


Robert E. Eliason

included the jew’s harp, which was traded to the Indians in great quantities; Aeolian harps (string instruments sounded by natural wind), advertised by Robert Horne in New York; and Benjamin Franklin 's armonica of 1762 , an important improvement on the musical glasses then popular in Europe. 2. 1780–1810. Although opera and concert performances were suppressed during and for a time after the Revolutionary War, military bands flourished, since they played for a variety of activities, including concerts and dancing. As theaters reopened and concerts resumed after the war



Jeremy Montagu, Howard Mayer Brown, Jaap Frank, and Ardal Powell

transmitted to North America. The French style became dominant, and the recordings, teaching and concert tours of French performers hastened the change from wooden Boehm-system flutes to silver flutes such as those made by Louis Lot. American firms founded by W.S. Haynes and V.Q. Powell began to make French-style flutes in the USA in the first decade of the century. These have set the standard both in the USA and, from the 1930s, in Japan, where Koichi Muramatsu began to make flutes inspired by Haynes and Powell. After World War II these and other American and Japanese makers


Richard Kassel

insts, 1949–50 rev. as Ring Around the Moon The Wooden Bird (incid. music, W. Leach), 1v, insts, 1950, collab. B. Johnston; Charlottesville, VA, 10 Jan 1951 Plectra and Percussion Dances Castor and Pollux, a Dance for the Twin Rhythms of Gemini, 1952, rev. 1968 Ring Around the Moon, a Dance Fantasm for Here and Now (Partch), 1952–3 Even Wild Horses, Dance Music for an Absent Drama (A. Rimbaud: A Season in Hell ), vv, large ens of orig. insts, 1949–52 Berkeley, CA, 19 Nov 1953 King Oedipus (1, after W.B. Yeats, after Sophocles), 10 solo vv, chorus, large



Alastair Dick, Christian Poché, Jack Percival Baker Dobbs, Margaret J. Kartomi, Jean During, and John Baily

a pegbox, straight and ‘sawn-off’, which continues the slightly tapering line of the neck (see e.g. A.H. Fox Strangways, The Music of Hindostan , Oxford, 1914 / R 1965, pl.1); in the other ( fig.2 ), doubtless the ‘south-central Indian’ type of Abul Fazl, the barbs are much reduced, the shell is more ovoid, the bridge (the deep Indian type) is nearer the centre and the pegbox is a semicircular bulge at the back, with an upper, non-functional, bent-back scroll. This is probably a development of the late Sultanate Deccan Muslim states, and it survives today in bowed


Howard Mayer Brown, David Hiley, Christopher Page, Kenneth Kreitner, Peter Walls, Janet K. Page, D. Kern Holoman, Robert Winter, Robert Philip, and Benjamin Brinner

Schechter : The Indispensable Harp: Historical Development, Modern Roles, Configurations, and Performance Practices in Ecuador and Latin America (Kent, OH, 1992) A. Shiloah : Jewish Musical Traditions (Detroit, 1992) K. Marshall , ed.: Rediscovering the Muses: Woman’s Musical Traditions (Boston, 1993) [incl. S. Weiss: ‘Gender and Gender : Gender Ideology and the Female Gender Player in Central Java’, 21–48; C. Meyers: ‘Drum-Dance-Song Ensemble: Women's Performance in Biblical Israel’, 49–67; E. Teeter: ‘Female Musicians in Pharaonic Egypt’, 68–91] A. Miner :


Jody Diamond

Benary, Barbara ( b Bay Shore, NY , April 7, 1946 ). American composer , performer , instrument builder and ethnomusicologist. She received the BA from Sarah Lawrence College, and the MA and PhD from Wesleyan University, where she studied Indonesian and Indian music. She has performed with the ensembles of Philip Glass, Jon Gibson, Alvin Lucier, Philip Corner and Daniel Goode. In 1976 she co-founded, with Corner and Goode, the Gamelan Son of Lion, New York, a new music collective and repertory ensemble under her direction. In addition, she has


Stephen Ruppenthal

revised by David Patterson

Rosenboom, David ( b Fairfield, IA , Sept 9, 1947 ). American composer , performer and designer and maker of electronic instruments. He studied music at the University of Illinois ( 1965–7 , composition with Binkerd and Martirano, electronic and computer techniques with Hiller) and also privately, learning various instruments, conducting and Indian music. In 1967–8 he went to the Center for Creative and Performing Arts at SUNY, Buffalo, and from there to New York University as a guest lecturer ( 1968–70 ). He was director of computer and electronic