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Petr Macek

(b Šternberk, 22 April 1964). Czech musicologist. He studied musicology with Jiří Vysloužil, Jiří Fukač, and Miloš Štědroň at Brno University. Then he worked at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague where he taught and researched until 1999. Between 1991 and 2002 he also taught at the Palacký University, Olomouc. In 1998 he started working at the Masaryk University, Brno (head of the Institute of Musicology, 1999–2004; vice-rector 2004–11; rector starting in 2011).

Bek’s scholarly specializations include music sociology, history of music after 1750, and music analysis. He is a co-director of the online Český hudební slovník osob a institucí (‘Czech Music Dictionary of Persons and Institutions’), and co-ordinator of RIPM for the Czech Republic (2001–3). He also participates actively in the international musicological colloquia that form part of the international music festival, Moravian Autumn, each year in Brno.

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Laurence Libin

Pure-tuned harmonium developed by the German physicist and music theorist Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (b Dorpat, Livonia, 28 March 1836; d Bensheim, Germany, 5 Sept 1920) and built by Schiedmayer in Stuttgart. An example from 1914 is in the Musikinstrumenten Museum, Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung, Berlin. Designed to sound pure 3rds, 4ths, and 5ths, it is based on an octave division into 53 (in some versions, 72) tones and has a complex multilayered but symmetrical keyboard similar to that of Bosanquet’s enharmonic harmonium. Oettingen studied astronomy and physics at the University of Dorpat and continued his education in Paris and Berlin. He was appointed a professor in Dorpat in 1863 and moved in 1893 to Leipzig, where he worked until 1919. He advocated the theory of ‘harmonic dualism’, later elaborated by Hugo Riemann, and introduced the interval measurement called the ‘millioctave’, based on division of the octave into 1000 tones. See ...


(fl late 14th century). Theorist and composer, likely from Aversa in the Campania region of Italy. He is best known from the frequent references made in the Ars cantus mensurabilis mensurata per modos iuris by Coussemaker’s Anonymous 5. This author describes Nicolaus as a Celestine monk, naming him ‘Frater’; the Celestines were a branch of the Benedictine order. He is largely associated with certain notational intricacies of the ‘ars subtilior’ style: complicated rhythms conveyed with void, coloured, or complex new note shapes. According to Anonymous 5, Nicolaus critiqued one ‘Cecchus de Florentia’ (the ‘blind one of Florence’, thus Francesco Landini), for his incorrect use of red semibreves in minor prolation, while Nicolaus himself used the dotted semibreve. The treatise does not name specific works that use any of these notational features, a regrettable omission since none of Nicolaus’s compositions are known today. Anonymous 5 does cite a setting of the Credo by Nicolaus for its use of ...