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Article

Bo Wallner and Hans Åstrand

chorus and orchestra ( 1888–9 ) presented. Following this he appeared frequently as a soloist and gave around 1000 concerts with Aulin and his quartet all over Sweden. Stenhammar’s début as a conductor had come earlier, in 1897 , when he directed the first performance of his concert overture Excelsior! . He held appointments as artistic director of the Stockholm Philharmonic Society ( 1897–1900 ), of the Royal Opera for one season, of the New Philharmonic Society ( 1904–6 ) and of the newly formed Göteborg Orchestral Society ( 1906–22 ). In this last post he made

Article

given no fewer than 39 times in 1795 , the year of its première; Beethoven’s set of 12 variations on a Menuett à la Vìganò woo 68 ( 1795 ) is based on an air from this work. Haibel’s greatest success was Der Tiroler Wastel of 1796 , to an ‘opera’ libretto by Schikaneder; it was given 66 times that year and 118 times in all at the Wiednertheater, and was also staged in innumerable other theatres. None of Haibel’s other original scores even remotely equalled its success, though in 1809 the ‘musical quodlibet’ Rochus Pumpernickel began its triumphant progress:

Article

John Horton and Nils Grinde

beginning of 1872 and performed in May at the Christiania Theatre. Composer and author then began to make plans for an opera on a Norwegian subject. In the meantime Grieg continued to give a considerable part of his time and energies to conducting and concert-giving, and in the autumn of 1871 he helped found the Christiania Music Society for the promotion of orchestral music. On 10 July 1873 Bjørnson sent him the first three scenes of an opera text, Olav Trygvason , on which he set to work at once, requesting Bjørnson to let him have the remainder of the text

Article

Erik Levi

Leipzig Bach Prize ( 1939 ) and the Freiburg Ehrenbürgerecht ( 1939 ) and was given the title of professor by the German government in 1936 . His final opera, Die pfiffige Magd ( 1937–8 ), had an auspicious première in Leipzig in 1939 , and was performed more than 150 times in German theatres over the following five years. Works ( selective list ) for fuller list see Falcke (1955) Stage Operas Schwanenweiss (3, Weismann, after A. Strindberg), op.75, 1919–20, Duisburg, 1923 Ein Traumspiel (3, Weismann, after Strindberg)

Article

Jeremy Dibble

associate conductor of the Proms ( 1945–6 ), as a guest conductor of the Hallé and Scottish orchestras (after 1947 ), and, from time to time, as an opera conductor at Sadler’s Wells ( 1931 ) and Covent Garden ( 1937 , 1939 , 1947 ). He did much to promote the work of Weill, Satie, Walton and Berners. Works Dramatic Ballets Prize-fight (1), 1923–4, London, 6 March 1924, rev. 1925, unpubd Mr Bear Squash-You-All-Flat (1), 1923–4, Manchester, 22 June 1979, unpubd Adam and Eve (suite dansée), 1924–5, London, 6 June 1932, rev. 1932, unpubd Romeo and Juliet

Article

Jennifer Spencer

revised by Edward Garden

failure to attend. Lyadov was however readmitted early in 1878 to prepare his graduation composition, the final scene from Schiller’s Die Braut von Messina , which was performed with great success on 23 May/4 June. Of the many influences on this work, the most interesting is Cui's opera William Ratcliff ( 1861–8 ), which had been composed with much help from Balakirev, and it is not surprising that Cui's and Stasov's reviews were complimentary. In September 1878 Lyadov became a teacher of elementary theory at the conservatory, taking over the instruction of advanced

Article

August Scharnagl

revised by Robert Münster

was the monastery's assistant director of music ( 1755 ), organist and director of the Tafelmusik ( 1757 ), leader of the Figuralchor ( 1760 ) and singing master ( 1761–2 ). In 1763 , to encourage his compositional activity, Abbot Meinrad Moosmüller sent him to visit the Italian Opera in Munich. In 1767 he became the music director and leader of the boys’ classes at the Andechs monastery. In 1772–4 and 1791–4 he was a priest at the convent of Lilienberg, Munich. Madlseder was considered an outstanding theoretician and contrapuntist and was highly regarded

Article

H.C. Colles

revised by E.D. Mackerness

Oswestry School of Music and the Oswestry Festival. Leslie’s own compositions include symphonies, oratorios, operas, cantatas and partsongs; he edited Cassell’s Choral Music (London, 1867 ) and other collections intended to popularize partsongs from earlier periods. His work with local choral groups was continued by his son, W.H.P. Leslie ( 1860–1926 ), an able business man and a Master of the Musicians’ Company ( 1924 ). Works ( selective list ) all printed works published in London Stage Romance (operetta, J.P. Simpson), 1857, London, CG, 2 Feb

Article

Peter Kemp

repertory by including the sometimes ‘futuristic’ music of contemporary operatic composers, especially that of Richard Wagner. As early as March 1853 , Johann Strauss (ii) had been the first in Vienna to feature extracts from Wagner’s operas in his concerts, presenting music from Tannhäuser and Lohengrin , long before the operas’ respective Viennese premières. Now Josef made a point of introducing extracts from Tristan und Isolde , Das Rheingold and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg , even before the works’ world premières. Wagner himself attended a concert of

Article

Octavian Cosma

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

across various tendencies, from chromatic modalism and serial dodecaphony to minimalism and the new consonance, permanently maintaining a relationship to musical traditions, first of all of Romanian folklore and of other cultures, especially the American culture. Pautza has had a parallel career as a conductor whose appearances have been appreciated on many stages of the world and in all the orchestras of Romania. He began his musical education at the Traditional School of Arts of Reşiţa ( 1956–60 ), continuing at the Bucharest Conservatory, specialising in choral

Article

Fritz Hennenberg

Lena ( 1976–8 ), based on Büchner, reflects unease with the realities of society, and thus implicitly criticizes accruals of the socialist ideal. The lyrical sections of the score create a glassy, fragile effect, slanting the comedy towards cynicism. Works Operas and incidental music all Berlin premières at Deutsche Staatsoper Giuditta (op, M. May), 1910–12, inc. Die Reisen des Glücksgotts (op, B. Brecht), 1945, inc. Die Verurteilung des Lukullus (Das Verhör des Lukullus) (op, Brecht), 1949–51, Berlin, 1951 Puntila (op, P. Palitzsch, M. Wekwerth, after

Article

John Bergsagel

performance of all his chamber music and generously put at his disposal his Paris residence when Svendsen moved there in the autumn. In Paris Svendsen found the musical environment he had been missing. He heard a great deal of new music, renewed old acquaintances and made new ones, including Mme Viardot. Pasdeloup included two of his Norwegian Rhapsodies in his concerts and allowed Svendsen to conduct his own Second Symphony. He conducted two concerts in Angers which were so successful that he was offered a post there. But two sets of songs, nine in all, was the apparent

Article

Giordano Montecchi

approach, set apart from the American Third Stream, he made manifest a political commitment to working-class and student left-wing movements after 1968 . Gaslini’s most important works include the suite Nuovi sentimenti , with Don Cherry, Gato Barbieri and Steve Lacy, and the jazz opera Colloquio con Malcolm X . He has frequently collaborated with Max Roach, Antony Braxton and, latterly, the Italian Instabile Orchestra. Gaslini has written a number of film scores, including that to Antonioni’s La notte , and incidental music. He has also been important as a teacher

Article

Joseph Vella Bondin

1970–92 ), the Astra Opera House, Gozo (since 1970 ), and other organizations, he introduced to the Maltese public choral works by Mozart, Beethoven, Britten, Orff and Bruckner. His continuing interest in early Maltese music led to the revival of significant 17th- and 18th-century works, which he edited and performed. His conducting is respectful of the composer's perceived inclinations and manifests an intuitive feeling for large-scale musical architecture and rhythmic continuity, and an emphasis on the singing line. Vella's compositions are all cast in a personal

Article

L.M. Butir

revised by Nataliya Yanov-Yanovskaya

conservatory in 1931 he made his début as a conductor at the Stanislavsky Opera Theatre, where he worked for several years, meanwhile making himself a reputation in the USSR and the USA as a composer. In 1936 he moved to Tashkent; his activities in Uzbekistan were extremely varied. He collected and studied examples of Uzbek and Karakalpak folk music, sometimes under the guidance of Viktor Uspensky, and in his compositions he used only folk material which he himself had recorded; he composed in all genres and wrote articles on Uzbek folk music; during the World War II

Article

Stuart Campbell

resignation Balakirev was appointed director on 28 January/ 9 February 1868 , retaining the post until the spring of 1874 , though latterly only nominally. 2. 1866–72. In 1866 Glinka’s sister Lyudmila Shestakova asked Balakirev to take charge of performances of her brother’s operas in Prague; devoted as he was to Glinka, Balakirev accepted. After delays caused by the Austro-Prussian War, he conducted Ruslan and Lyudmila there on 4/16, 5/17 and 7/ 19 February 1867 and A Life for the Tsar on 10/22 February. Balakirev was never easy to get on with if disagreement

Article

Robert Orledge

composer, he was a perfectionist; his meticulous preparation and painstaking rehearsal techniques led to sensitive and authoritative performances which soon attracted international attention. In October 1910 he was invited by the impresario Henry Russell to conduct at the Boston Opera Company, where he spent six months a year for the next four years, becoming the company's musical director in 1912 . As well as giving some of the best performances of Pelléas et Mélisande ever, he also continued his affair with Russell's wife, Nina, which had begun in France and

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Prussian crown princess, Friederike Luise. In April 1780 he was appointed to yet another position with the Prussian royal family, as court composer in Rheinsberg to the king’s younger brother Prince Heinrich. Schulz was a champion of new music, producing French operettas along with operas by Gluck, Piccinni and Sacchini at these courts; this brought him into disfavour with the royal family and led to his resignation after seven years in Rheinsberg ( 1787 ). He then accepted an even more important position in the court at Copenhagen as Hofkapellmeister and director of

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

A conservative composer, he was strongly influenced by Brahms’s harmony and orchestration. He wrote neither operas nor oratorios and seems to have been at his best in chamber music (e.g. the String Quartet in E minor and the Piano Quintet in B minor; the latter occupies a central place in his output). His main venture as a composer of programme music was the Symphony no.3 in C minor, subtitled ‘Mirjam’ ( 1888 ). In his composition, Gernsheim aimed above all for unity, believing that each bar should be both essential and inevitable in its place in the conception of

Article

John C.G. Waterhouse and Virgilio Bernardoni

fiaba, prol., 3, C.V. Lodovici, after C. Gozzi), op.50, 1928–31, Rome, Opera, 17 March 1932 La favola d’Orfeo (chbr op, 1, C. Pavolini, after A. Poliziano), op.51, 1932, Venice, Goldoni, 6 Sept 1932 Il deserto tentato (mistero, 1, Pavolini), op.60, 1936–7, Florence, Comunale, 19 May 1937 La camera dei disegni (Balletto per Fulvia) (ballet), op.64, Rome, Arti, 28 Nov 1940 [partly after 11 pezzi infantili, op.35, pf] La rosa del sogno (ballet, 1), op.66, Rome, Opera, 16 March 1943 [partly after Paganiniana, op.65, orch] Other