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Article

John C.G. Waterhouse and Virgilio Bernardoni

fiaba, prol., 3, C.V. Lodovici, after C. Gozzi), op.50, 1928–31, Rome, Opera, 17 March 1932 La favola d’Orfeo (chbr op, 1, C. Pavolini, after A. Poliziano), op.51, 1932, Venice, Goldoni, 6 Sept 1932 Il deserto tentato (mistero, 1, Pavolini), op.60, 1936–7, Florence, Comunale, 19 May 1937 La camera dei disegni (Balletto per Fulvia) (ballet), op.64, Rome, Arti, 28 Nov 1940 [partly after 11 pezzi infantili, op.35, pf] La rosa del sogno (ballet, 1), op.66, Rome, Opera, 16 March 1943 [partly after Paganiniana, op.65, orch] Other

Article

Malcolm MacDonald

music, non-European modes and rāgas, and music for meditation, had earlier been awakened by his second wife, the violinist Maud McCarthy (in the 1920s he had essayed a vast Sanskrit opera, Avatara , which he subsequently destroyed, though the 3 Mantras , the preludes to the acts, survive). After a year investigating Indian music first-hand, he was appointed Director of European Music at All-India Radio, Delhi, where he broadcast frequently as a commentator, solo performer and conductor. He also coached Indian musicians to read Western musical notation and perform as

Article

José Carlos Picoto

revised by Adriana Latino

some of the songs he wrote for the theatre and cinema are still a success. Some of the ballet music he composed for the Verde Gaio Company in the 1940s, though not often staged, is played frequently in concert versions. Works ( selective list ) Dramatic Operas A flor de S. Roque (vaudeville, L. Silva and A. Barbosa), Lisbon, Avenida, 1928 O meu menino (vaudeville), Lisbon, Avenida, 1931 A Senhora da Saúde (operetta, 2, S. Tavares, A. Amaral, X. Magalhães), Lisbon, Maria Vitória, 1931 Alvorada

Article

generative cells, of partial development of different ideas that ultimately reunite, and of modulations up or down a 3rd. Ropartz’s love of Brittany is expressed not so much through the routine exploitation of folk music but rather by means of an atmospheric evocation of place (as in his opera Le pays ), by working with modal scales and colours (especially sensitive and successful in his chamber music) and by using unequal rhythms, displaced accents and polyrhythm. Ropartz published three volumes of poetry in his youth: Adagiettos , Modes mineurs and Les nuances (Paris

Article

Peter Kemp

avoided it whenever possible, he made important appearances in Paris (most significantly in 1867 when, inter alia , he performed at the Austrian Embassy Ball, an event which helped popularize An der schönen, blauen Donau outside Vienna), London (conducting at all 63 promenade concerts at the Royal Italian Opera House in 1867, recollected by his waltz Erinnerung an Covent-Garden op.329, Boston (in 1872 playing at the World’s Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival, followed by appearances in New York) and Berlin (conducting a series of concerts at the newly-opened

Article

Vera Lampert

studied composition with Koessler at the Budapest Academy of Music ( 1906–8 ) and then went to the Leipzig Conservatory, where he was a pupil of Reger (composition), Nikisch (conducting), Straube (organ) and Sitt (violin). Between 1911 and 1913 he was active in several smaller opera companies: as répétiteur at Bremen and as conductor at Czernowitz (now Černovice), Jihlava and Scheveningen. He lived in Berlin from 1913 and there took further composition lessons from Schoenberg and began to write studies on music, publishing several articles in Die Musik in

Article

Reinhold Brinkmann

revised by Bernd Wiechert

until every kind of instrument is banished from all genuine artistic institutions, namely, from churches and schools’. He fought against the establishment of a conservatory in Berlin and against inviting Joachim to Berlin because of their orientation towards instrumental music. As conductor of the Singakademie, however, Grell had to compromise, for the orchestral accompaniment of choral works was a general requirement of concert life. As a young composer Grell had written a number of instrumental works, as well as an opera, but later he devoted himself exclusively to

Article

Gerard Béhague

Tremembé are imaginatively orchestrated, with, in Flor , effective use of typical Brazilian percussion instruments, including the cavaquinho (a variety of ukulele), the cuíca (a friction drum) and the agogô (a cowbell). From the association with Andrade there resulted a one-act comic opera, Pedro Malazarte ( 1932 ), introduced with great success in Rio de Janeiro in 1952 ; his one-act lyric tragedy Um homem só ( 1960 ), on a libretto by the poet Gianfrancesco Guarnieri, was produced in Rio in 1962 to moderate acclaim. But it was in the many solo songs that Guarnieri

Article

G.W. Hopkins

revised by Paul Griffiths

Interviews M.D. Hastings : ‘M. Boulez’ Press-Conference’, MO , vol.89 (1965), 21–7 J. Buzga : ‘Interview mit Pierre Boulez in Prag’, Melos , vol.34 (1967), 162–4 ‘Sprengt die Opernhäuser in die Luft!’, Der Spiegel (25 Sept 1967); Eng. trans. in Opera , vol.19 (1968), 440–50 G. Harewood : ‘Whither Opera?’, Opera , vol.20 (1969), 922–31, 1026–31 M. Cotta and S. de Nussac : ‘L’express va plus loin avec Pierre Boulez’, L’express , no.979 (1970), 144 H. Pousseur : ‘Pierre Boulez’, VH 101 , no.4 (1970–71), 6–11 M. Kendergi : ‘Pierre Boulez interrogé’, Cahiers

Article

Michael Kunkel and Jürg Stenzl

work rests on the craftsmanlike foundation laid by the rigorous tuition he received from Veress, an exiled pupil of Bartók, which has left its mark on all his compositions: central themes of Veress’s teaching such as canonic techniques and questions of formal symmetry have exercised him in varying contexts. The contrapuntal emphasis in these studies was valuably supplemented by Boulez, who sensitized Holliger above all to harmonic considerations. After the study Schwarzgewobene Trauer ( 1961–2 ), based on a note row from Boulez’s Third Piano Sonata, and the Sequenzen

Article

Peter Kemp

, with the recruitment of the three Scholl brothers, Joseph, Karl and Simon, the quartet grew to a septet, consisting of first and second violins, viola or 3rd violin, guitar, cello or bass, flute and clarinet. Strauss’s arrangement (in a copyist’s hand) of the overture to Auber’s opera, La neige, ou Le nouvel éginard ( 1823 ) dates from April 1824, and is one of his oldest extant works. From 1825 it is likely that ensemble was enlarged further, gradually achieving an orchestra size of 11–12 players. From autumn 1824 to probably spring 1825, Strauss was a conscript

Article

Hans Åstrand and Bo Wallner

Schubert centenary ( 1928 ). Some of his five operas and his two best ballets had many performances in Europe during the 1920s and 1930s, particularly in Germany. Best known of these was the ballet De fåvitska jungfrurna (‘The Foolish Virgins’, 1920 ), written for the Ballets Suédois of Paris. Bäckahästen (‘The White Horse’, 1923–4 ), with its naive folkloristic tone and Singspiel character, also met with success, and Fanal ( 1929–32 ) is an effective, ballad-style drama of freedom in 16th-century Germany. All Atterberg’s stage works rely on decorative effect

Article

Markus Grassl

Both Curriculum ( 1972–3 ) and the Double Concerto for violin and cello ( 1975–6 ) combine a wide range of heterogeneous materials, and this synthesis of diverse idioms is taken even further in Baal ( 1974–80 ), Cerha's first opera in the conventional sense. Its portrayal of fate of the poet Baal reflects the fundamental theme of all Cerha’s stage works, namely the relationship between the desires of the individual and the demands of social order. The highly expressive character of the music is often cited as reminiscent of Berg’s style. Beginning in 1980 ,

Article

Gernot Gruber

c composition that lasted into the 1960s. Later, he became preoccupied with Klangflächen music, writing works concerned with the depth and density of planes of sound. His openness to new techniques was demonstrated by his electronic music experiments of 1959 and his television opera Der Kardinal . Works ( selective list ) for complete list see Gruber and Kraus (1988) Stage Das Teehaus (ballet), 1954, frag.; Moderner Traum (ballet), 1957, Linz, 29 Sept 1957 Oedipus (op, H. Weinstock, after Sophocles), 1958, Linz, 30 Sept 1960 Der Kardinal

Article

Benet Casablancas i Domingo

Andalusian tradition ( Jondo , Flamenco and Hommage à Carmen Amaya ), or introducing highly stylised material of indigenous origin which serves as the basis and starting point of the composition (Bassoon Concerto). This tendency reaches its peak in one of his most important works, the opera Gaudí , a synthesis of his output. While the orchestration obviously predominates in great sound paintings such as Ab origine , Tzákol , Trama and Gaudí , his chamber works attain the highest degree of purification and mastery in pieces such as the Pàssim-trio , Barcelona 216

Article

Jürgen Schaarwächter

Rootham’, MT , 79 (1938), 17–22 F. Knight : Cambridge Music from the Middle Ages to Modern Times (Cambridge and New York, 1980) K. Shenton : ‘Cyril Bradley Rootham’, British Music Society Journal , 7 (1985), 30–37 A.-M.H. Forbes : ‘A Comparative Study of Folk Material in Opera: Bantock’s The Seal Woman and Rootham’s The Two Sisters ’, MR , 51 (1990), 95–115 J. Schaarwächter : ‘Cyril Bradley Rootham’, British Music Society Newsletter , no.71 (1996), 257–60 C.W. Price : Lost in the Revival: The Sacred Choral Music of Cyril Bradley Rootham (1875-1938)

Article

Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(Horace: OdesI), 4 solo vv, chorus, c 1820, autograph MS in Cincinnati Art Museum; Hymnus in solemnia academiae: Felix ad est, solo v, chorus, 1825, lost Das Gastmahl (Goethe), solo vv, chorus (Berlin, 1832) Divis orte bonis optime prussiae, chorus, lost Opera, scenas etc.: Das Orakel (op, C.F. Gellert), c 1778, frag., lost O Dio, se in questo istante (scena and aria, P. Metastasio), 1781, D-B ; Misero me! ah! che veggo! (scena and aria, Metastasio), 1783, lost Barbaro, che a tuoi nodi (scena and aria, Metastasio), S

Article

Ann Carr-Boyd

revised by Alan Blyth

When the National Opera of New South Wales toured New Zealand he conducted for them, and in 1954 he went to Australia with the National Opera, which he conducted until 1957 . He became resident conductor of the Elizabethan Theatre Trust Opera Company (now Australian Opera) until 1965 , and he pioneered television opera in Australia. Tintner’s work also included periods as music director of the New Zealand Opera Company ( 1964 ) and resident conductor of the Cape Town Municipal Orchestra ( 1966–7 ); in Britain he appeared with Sadler’s Wells Opera ( 1968–70 ), the

Article

Caroline Mears and James May

moderately dissonant style. It was as an opera composer that he produced his best work: this is particularly evident in the trilogy Murder in Three Keys and in the three acts that constitute Canterbury Tales . The latter is arguably his best stage work and a good example of his dramatic flair. In it he used a free modification of Schoenberg’s 12-note technique and ingeniously incorporated Ars Nova devices and adaptations of 14th-century tunes. He prepared his own librettos for all his operas. His writings include The Operas of Leoš Janáček (Oxford, 1971 ), music

Article

Keith Horner

revised by R. Allen Lott and E. Douglas Bomberger

many tours in the provinces and Europe, chiefly with Italian opera companies. From 1878 to 1886 he conducted Mapleson’s annual opera tours of the United States. Several of these were with Adelina Patti, as were all his remaining American tours, the last of which took place in 1893–4 . Bibliography Grove7 (Nigel Burton and Keith Horner) “First Performance of Signor Arditi’s Opera, ‘La Spia’,” New York Courier and Enquirer (25 March 1856), 203 [repr. in Dwight’s Journal of Music (29 March 1856)] “Luigi Arditi,” Brainard’s Musical