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ethnomusicologist , conductor and composer of Austro-Hungarian origin . He studied at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik with Franz Schreker and Curt Sachs and at Prague University with Gustav Becking and Paul Nettl. He conducted opera in Karlovy Vary and Eger, Bohemia, 1927–8 . His appointments included those of music director for All-India Radio ( 1935–46 ), head of the piano department at the Conservatory of Halifax, Nova Scotia ( 1947–8 ), conductor of the Winnipeg SO ( 1949–56 ), and professor of musicology at Indiana University ( 1957–77 ). Kaufmann is best

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Cliff Eisen

in popularity and appeal. In the late 1980s Piazzolla’s works began to be taken up by classical performers, in particular the Kronos Quartet, who commissioned Five Tango Sensations ( 1989 ). In all he composed about 750 works, including film scores for Tangos: the Exile of Gardel ( 1985 ) and Sur ( 1987 ). Shortly before his death, he was commissioned to write an opera on the life of Gardel. Bibliography B. Matamoro : ‘Tango: Piazzolla, la vanguardia y después’, Crisis , 1/7 (1973), 21–3 A. Piazzolla : Astor Piazzolla: a manera de

Article

Steven Ledbetter and Brian Bell

Henschel’s first program. His compositions include two operas, a number of sacred choral works, about 20 piano pieces, and many songs and duets. Besides his book of memoirs, he published Personal Recollections of J. Brahms ( 1907 ) and Articulation in Singing ( 1918 ). Henschel composed three works for the stage. Nothing seems to have come of his first opera, Friedrich der Schöne . At the end of his last season with the Boston SO, he collaborated with the American writer William Dean Howells on a comic opera conceived in the style of Gilbert and Sullivan and planned

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Andrew Lamb

with Little Christopher Columbus ( 1893 ), and at the Gaiety Theatre, for which he wrote, with Lionel Monckton, a number of highly successful musical comedies between 1894 and 1909 . In all he composed about 40 light operas and musical comedies for London, Europe and the USA ( The Ladies’ Paradise , 1901 , was the first musical comedy to be presented at the Metropolitan Opera). In 1899 he became conductor of a light orchestra bearing his name; Elgar composed his Sérénade lyrique ( 1899 ) for it. In 1910 Caryll moved to the USA, eventually becoming a naturalized

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and broke off all relations with Vitzthumb. The theatre’s financial difficulties obliged Compain to resign in 1775 , leaving Vitzthumb to carry on by himself. Hoping to increase receipts he decided to stage operas in Flemish (the Spectacles Nationaux) at La Monnaie, and formed the Troupe Nationale for that purpose, with artists who included his two daughters Anne-Marie ( 1757–77 ) and Marie-Françoise ( 1758–1820 ), and singers he had discovered in the Compagnies Bourgeoises (his future son-in-law Henry Mees, Joseph Debatty and the Borremans sisters, all trained by

Article

Joel Sachs and Mark Kroll

fugal variations. The typical improvisation included a fantasy-like introduction, themes from popular operas or from the evening’s concert or party and a series of free variations, sometimes ending with a paraphrase of the finale of an opera such as Don Giovanni . In his autobiography Spohr described such an improvisation following a party for the Congress of Vienna: Hummel wove the themes of the concert into contrapuntal variations, a fugue and a bravura finale, all in waltz time to permit the last stragglers to dance.The American pianist Louis Moreau Gottschalk related

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conduct The Queen of Spades at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg in 1912 , described it as ‘astonishingly fresh. All kinds of clichés were erased, and the opera came across to the listener in a new, lively way, as if it had just been “washed”.’ At Mamontov’s theatre Rachmaninoff also formed a close friendship with Chaliapin (who sang with the company), and during a summer holiday in 1898 they made intensive studies together of the operas of Rimsky-Korsakov and Musorgsky, particularly Boris Godunov . Serge Rachmaninoff (second left) with his teacher Zverev

Article

Jeremy Dibble and Jennifer Spencer

emotional note, as in his Ode to the Passions ( 1898 ). This tendency is also largely true of his contribution to opera. The diminutive canvas of his ‘comedietta’ One Too Many ( 1874 ) has a charm and subtlety that befits Cowen's natural sense of wit. His attempts at serious opera, on the other hand, were much less happy. His one verismo opera, Signa ( 1892 ), intended to follow the production of Sullivan's Ivanhoe at D'Oyly Carte's new Royal English Opera House, was performed twice at the Teatro Dal Verme, Milan, in November 1893 (reduced from four acts to three)

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Joachim E. Berendt and Wolfram Knauer

Mangelsdorff (with whom he also occasionally performed in the German All Stars), and, from 1986 , collaborated with the songwriter Konstantin Wecker. In his early work Dauner’s piano playing showed traces of Bill Evans (ii) and Paul Bley, but he soon developed an individual virtuoso style combining intense free improvisation with lyrical and meditative passages. His compositions in the mid- to late 1960s made use of jazz and contemporary art music, and often incorporated elements of theatre, opera, and dance; Free Action (originally performed at the Berliner Jazztage

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Alexander L. Ringer

choice (Saul Bellow’s Henderson, the Rain King ), appears to persist at times. Fortunately, some of its finest musical moments have been recaptured in an identically titled chamber work as well as in the separately published solo piece Flutings for Paula ( 1977 ). Works Opera Lily (3, Kirchner, after S. Bellow: Henderson, the Rain King ), 1973–6 New York, 14 April 1977, arr. S, tape, chbr ens, 1973 Orchestral Piece, pf, orch, 1946, unpubd Sinfonia, 1951 Pf Conc. no.1, 1953 Toccata, str, wind, perc, 1955 Conc., vn, vc, 10 wind, perc, 1960 Pf Conc

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John Warrack and James Deaville

1844 , from teaching in 1854 and from directing the institute in 1858 . Although he composed a number of original works, including church music, symphonic music, an unperformed opera Scipio ( 1818 ), songs and much chamber and piano music, it is for his teaching manuals and theoretical and critical writings that Fröhlich is renowned. As a theorist he was thorough and above all practical in his approach; as a teacher he demanded that theory and practice should go hand in hand; as a critic, especially for the journal Caecilia , he showed an alert understanding

Article

Marcello Piras

still largely awaits decipherment. Works ( * Collaborative works with Billy Strayhorn. For the nature and extent of such collaboration, see van de Leur, 2002. ) theatrical Operas Boola (Ellington, inc.), 1939 Shout up a Morning, musical drama (P. Farrow, unproduced), 1970 Queenie Pie, street opera (Ellington, inc., compl. M. Ellington, M. Peress), Philadelphia, 1986 Musical comedies Harlem is Heaven (unproduced), 1937 H.M.S. Times Square (unproduced), 1943–5

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Douglas Townsend

intention of creating ‘a polyrhythmic kaleidoscope in which melody, harmony and speech mingle’, the neo-classical Clarinet Concerto ( 1988 ), and the opera Masada ( 1995 ), both of which make use of aleatory and 12-note techniques. Underlying all his music is a sense of balance and formal design showing a discipline and control which reflects his early classical training. Works Dramatic A Children’s Opera (Kaufman), 1967 The Nothing Ballet, 1971 Ballet Music, 1975 Masada (op, 3, C. Eisendrath), 1995 Orch and choral Sym. no.1, str, 1966 Conc.,

Article

David Scott

e for all broadcast chamber music and recitals. In 1938 he devised a memorable series ‘Handel in Rome’. After the war he returned to the BBC to plan the Third Programme, which gave its first broadcast in 1946 . Lewis took charge of the organization and general direction of all Third Programme music. In 1947 he was elected Peyton and Barber Professor of Music at Birmingham University, where he continued his pioneering activities. During his 21-year professorship he conducted many revivals of orchestral, choral and stage works, particularly Handel operas; these

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Israel J. Katz

3 English Songs (O. Wilde, A. Swinburne, G. Meredith), op.15 (1912) 7 other pubd songs; 23 unpubd songs, 1889–1901 Other works, all unpubd 14 chbr works, up to 1900 10 pf works, 1890–97 Principal publishers Schirmer, Ditson, H.W. Gray Writings ed.: The Development of Opera: from its Earliest Beginnings to the Masterworks of Gluck (New York, 1913) ‘“Boris Godounoff” and the Life of Moussorgsky’; ‘Boris Godounoff: a Drama of the

Article

Gerard Béhague

such eclecticism that it is difficult to isolate constant features, although a tendency to polytonality, tone clusters, atonality and serialism can be discerned. Indeed, the Variações em busca de um tema ( 1972 ) were designed to accommodate ‘all present-day compositional processes’. In the 1970s Mignone returned to opera, with O chalaça ( 1973 ), one of the best works in the contemporary operatic repertory in Brazil, and O sargento de milícias ( 1978 ), both on librettos by H. Mello Nóbrega. He utilized a number of popular musical themes in the latter, regaining

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Jennifer Doctor, Judith LeGrove, Paul Banks, Heather Wiebe and Philip Brett

p.278), the opera met with success from the moment of its first performance at Sadler’s Wells Theatre, London, on 7 June 1945 ( see Opera ). It was quickly taken up by other companies in Europe and the USA, and in due course became one of the rare 20th-century operas to enter the repertory. Britten’s actual return to England had been anticlimactic. Although the tribunal he faced, as a conscientious objector, called him up for non-combatant duties, he was allowed on appeal to go free. This was also true of Pears. Their giving recitals all over the country

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Andrew Lamb

avoid writing numbers for performers who were comics rather than singers. In fact the chief comic role, Njegus, has no solo singing. Lehár was thus more than usually free to follow his own inclination without extraneous influences. Above all, however, he was fortunate in having the good text on which an operetta, far more than an opera, is dependent. The waltzes, which were de rigueur in Viennese operetta, were able to occur as an integral part of the action, and the book strikes an ideal balance between reality and fantasy, with a fine combination of romance and wit

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Philip L. Scowcroft

flute in orchestras in Harrogate, then at Bournemouth under Dan Godfrey. He subsequently conducted at various London theatres (among them the Adelphi, Terry's, Daly's and Drury Lane), for over 30 years. He toured the USA with Messager's Véronique and recorded excerpts from the Savoy operas. He also composed musicals of his own, but these have survived less well than the splendidly scored orchestral works produced for Boosey & Hawkes, both original pieces and arrangements, for whom he was a staff composer. His compositions include suites and separate movements, many

Article

John Tyrrell

church music, and from 1845 Valachian folk music elements began to appear in his music. Although he wrote an opera to a Russian text ( Tamara , unperformed) and some Russian romances (to texts by A.J. Pukarov and N.A. Nekrasov) his contacts with Russian composers and his long stay in Russia left little trace. In spirit and idiom his works hardly go further than his early patriotic Moravian music and by later years were all but forgotten. In addition to two operas (including the one-act Zajatá , ‘The Woman Captive’, given in Prague in 1869 ), he wrote two cantatas, marches