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Article

William Y. Elias

Festival. The following year he conducted the première of Tal’s opera Die Versuchung at the Munich Festival and became musical director of the Jerusalem SO, a post he held until 1986 . During this time he created the annual Liturgica Festival, which features sacred music from all periods. In 1981–3 he served as music adviser to the Detroit SO, and from 1983 to 1991 he was chief conductor of the Cologne RSO. From 1987 until his resignation in 1990 he was music director and Intendant of the Frankfurt Opera. At Frankfurt he conducted the première of Cage’s Europeras

Article

Walter Aaron Clark

and finally conductor at the Teatro Principal. Eventually he confined himself to teaching and composition. Despite their settings, dialogue and costumes, his Catalan zarzuelas evince the influence of Italian opera so pervasive in Spain during that epoch. He was a gifted orchestrator and made effective use of colour to project dramatic situations. Works all zarzuelas; first performed in Barcelona unless otherwise stated La romería de Recasens (2), 1867 L’ultim rey de Magnolia (1, S. Pitarra), Romeo, Dec 1868 Els pescadors de

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

the polonaise gave rise to the sentimental style and character of Polish music before Chopin. Several of Stefani’s children were musicians, including Kazimierz ( 1791–1811 ) and Jan ( 1797–1826 ), violinists in the opera orchestra, Karolina ( 1784–1803 ) and Eleonora ( 1802–31 ), both opera singers, and Józef Stefani . Works Stage all first performed at the National Theatre, Warsaw Miłosć każdemu wiekowi właściwa [Love Becomes Every Age] (ballet), 4 Nov 1785 Król w kraju roakoszy [The King in Cockaigne] (3, F. Zabłocki, after M.-A. Legrand:

Article

Bryan Gilliam and Charles Youmans

were hardly cheerful times. During work on the new opera, Die Liebe der Danae ( 1938–40 ), Strauss's daughter-in-law was placed under house arrest in Garmisch, and Strauss appealed to Heinz Tietjen, the Berlin Intendant, who had high political connections, to help ensure her and his grandsons' safety. Danae was scheduled for a 1944 première in Salzburg, but cancelled after a dress rehearsal by an order from Goebbels to close all theatres in preparation for total war. In the meantime Strauss composed his final opera, Capriccio ( 1940–41 ), which had its première

Article

Steven Ledbetter

the Metropolitan Opera after half a dozen performances, though G. Schirmer published the work in full score, an unprecedented distinction for an American opera. 3. Instrumental music. Herbert’s instrumental music fell out of favour after his own time, though it has begun to reappear in concert and recordings. The one substantial exception was the Second Cello Concerto, in E minor, first performed by the composer with the New York PO under Anton Seidl in 1894 . The work is Lisztian in its thorough-going employment of thematic transformation in all three movements

Article

Michal Ben-Zur

Exiles’, 1952 ). His most performed work, Symphonic Suite on Greek Themes ( 1943 ), received the 1951 Engel prize. Works ( selective list ) Operas Nedarim [Vows] (Salomon), 1954–5 David and Goliath (A. Bär), solo vv, chorus, ob, str qt, 1965 Four Times Methuselah: Methuselah Laughs Last (ob, Salomon), 1965–6 Vocal The Tone (cant., A. Nedel), 1933 Adon olam [Lord of All], T, chorus, org, 1949 Kibbutz ha’galuyot [Gathering of Exiles] (cant., Bible), 1952 Le’ma’an Yerushalayim [For the Sake of Jerusalem] (cant., Bible), 1958 Halo

Article

Edward Greenfield

well as of Barber’s Knoxville: Summer of 1915 , but generally Previn’s unashamedly eclectic idiom owes more to Walton and Britten than to American models. September 1998 brought a landmark in his composing career, with the première in San Francisco of his biggest work to date, the opera A Streetcar Named Desire , based on Tennessee Williams’s play with a libretto by Philip Littell. A recording of the work was issued the following year. Following the pattern set by Bernstein, Previn throughout his career has defied the cult of specialization predominant in the modern

Article

Ned Quist

revised by Linda L. Giedl

three years of intensive work, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (Die italienische Sonate für mehrere Instrumente im 17ten Jahrhundert, diss., U. of Heidelberg, 1932 ). Later that year he was engaged as a coach and conducting assistant to Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt at the Darmstadt Opera. Beaten with guns by Adolf Hitler’s Stormtroopers in early 1933 , Schlossberg left Germany for Paris. Taking the name Jean Berger in 1934 , he became a sought-after concert accompanist and vocal coach, founded and conducted a small chorus (Les Compagnons de la Marjolaine) and a

Article

Warren M. Sherk

educated at the Vienna Conservatory and University of Vienna, studying violin with Jakob Grün and Arnold Rosé and composition with Robert Fuchs. After playing violin with the Vienna Court Opera, he immigrated to the United States in 1907 . He was the concertmaster at the Manhattan Opera house until 1911 , then conducted Klaw & Erlanger productions for three years and the Century Opera Company for one. As music director of three Broadway film theaters from 1916 to 1925 under Samuel L. Rothafel, then Paramount, he oversaw a large staff of composers, arrangers, copyists

Article

Elaine Keillor

Guelph Light Opera and Oratorio Company ( 1955–1974 ), conducted the Bach-Elgar Choir of Hamilton ( 1962–74 ) and was the chorus master of the Canadian Opera Company ( 1973–81 ). In 1979 he was appointed to the faculty of music at the University of Guelph where he later became composer-in-residence and the director of the electronic music studio. He retired in 1994 . Although his early compositions were primarily instrumental, he produced much vocal music later in his career, including an oratorio, The Angels of the Earth ( 1966 ) and a number of operas. Héloise

Article

Jerrold Northrop Moore

few recordings he made. Serious and deeply reflective by nature, he tried all his life to focus his powers not only on playing and conducting but also on writing and composing. He wrote a psychological study of Liszt and many reminiscences, later collected by his pupil Theodore Bullock under the title Life and Liszt (New York, 1961 ). Besides editing the works of Chopin, Friedheim was a dedicated composer, though few of his works were published and many of the manuscripts are lost. His operas include The Last Days of Pompeii , not performed, Alexander and Thaïs

Article

Raoul F. Camus

appeared on the Chautauqua circuit from 1910 to 1916 . While pursuing his band activities, he organized an opera company in 1918 that continued for five years. The Depression brought about a decline in professional bands, and in 1936 he became conductor of the New York City Symphonic Orchestra, formed under the auspices of the WPA. A year later he became bandmaster of the New York State Symphonic Band, also a WPA group. In 1939 he brought grand opera to the Bronx, New York, but had to cancel after two successful performances. He continued to make appearances

Article

ethnomusicologist , conductor and composer of Austro-Hungarian origin . He studied at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik with Franz Schreker and Curt Sachs and at Prague University with Gustav Becking and Paul Nettl. He conducted opera in Karlovy Vary and Eger, Bohemia, 1927–8 . His appointments included those of music director for All-India Radio ( 1935–46 ), head of the piano department at the Conservatory of Halifax, Nova Scotia ( 1947–8 ), conductor of the Winnipeg SO ( 1949–56 ), and professor of musicology at Indiana University ( 1957–77 ). Kaufmann is best

Article

Albert Mell

revised by Matthias Wiegandt

embrace nearly all genres, though few are of lasting interest. Notable are some of his stage works, the Third Symphony op.31, the Oboe Concerto op.33, some overtures and piano pieces, in particular the Piano Sonata op.17, the Flute Sonata op.42 and some of his songs. In matters of form as well as instrumentation Rietz followed Mendelssohn, and he remained unaffected by the orchestral and musico-dramatic innovations of the school of Wagner and Liszt. In his last years Rietz was again active as an editor. He prepared the scores of a number of Mozart operas, which were later

Article

Giselher Schubert

some of the best conductors of the day, among them Willem Mengelberg, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Fritz Busch and Hermann Scherchen, men who would later champion his compositions. The principal conductor, Ludwig Rottenberg, conducted the German premières of operas by Debussy, Dukas and Bartók and promoted Schreker’s operas above all. (Hindemith married his youngest daughter, Gertrud, in 1924 .) In 1915 Hindemith became the second violinist in Rebner’s string quartet. He also appeared as a violin soloist playing concertos by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Mendelssohn. In 1923

Article

Philip L. Scowcroft

1926 [incl. The Policeman's Serenade (A.P. Herbert), later perf separately] Midnight Follies (revue), 1927 The Fountain of Youth (comic op, 1, W. Graham Robertson), 1931 Derby Day (comic op, 3, Herbert), 1932 1066 and All That (musical comedy, R. Arkell), 1934 The Bookies' Opera (A.J. Talbot) Other ballad ops and short ops, some for radio Incidental music The Toy Cart, 1918 Leatherface, 1922 The Beaux Stratagem, 1927 The Taming of the Shrew, 1927

Article

Cliff Eisen

in popularity and appeal. In the late 1980s Piazzolla’s works began to be taken up by classical performers, in particular the Kronos Quartet, who commissioned Five Tango Sensations ( 1989 ). In all he composed about 750 works, including film scores for Tangos: the Exile of Gardel ( 1985 ) and Sur ( 1987 ). Shortly before his death, he was commissioned to write an opera on the life of Gardel. Bibliography B. Matamoro : ‘Tango: Piazzolla, la vanguardia y después’, Crisis , 1/7 (1973), 21–3 A. Piazzolla : Astor Piazzolla: a manera de

Article

Steven Ledbetter

revised by Brian Bell

Henschel’s first program. His compositions include two operas, a number of sacred choral works, about 20 piano pieces, and many songs and duets. Besides his book of memoirs, he published Personal Recollections of J. Brahms ( 1907 ) and Articulation in Singing ( 1918 ). Henschel composed three works for the stage. Nothing seems to have come of his first opera, Friedrich der Schöne . At the end of his last season with the Boston SO, he collaborated with the American writer William Dean Howells on a comic opera conceived in the style of Gilbert and Sullivan and planned

Article

Andrew Lamb

with Little Christopher Columbus ( 1893 ), and at the Gaiety Theatre, for which he wrote, with Lionel Monckton, a number of highly successful musical comedies between 1894 and 1909 . In all he composed about 40 light operas and musical comedies for London, Europe and the USA ( The Ladies’ Paradise , 1901 , was the first musical comedy to be presented at the Metropolitan Opera). In 1899 he became conductor of a light orchestra bearing his name; Elgar composed his Sérénade lyrique ( 1899 ) for it. In 1910 Caryll moved to the USA, eventually becoming a naturalized

Article

and broke off all relations with Vitzthumb. The theatre’s financial difficulties obliged Compain to resign in 1775 , leaving Vitzthumb to carry on by himself. Hoping to increase receipts he decided to stage operas in Flemish (the Spectacles Nationaux) at La Monnaie, and formed the Troupe Nationale for that purpose, with artists who included his two daughters Anne-Marie ( 1757–77 ) and Marie-Françoise ( 1758–1820 ), and singers he had discovered in the Compagnies Bourgeoises (his future son-in-law Henry Mees, Joseph Debatty and the Borremans sisters, all trained by