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Article

Manica Špendal

revised by Jernej Weiss

influences from Verdi in his early and middle creative periods and verismo to some extent, he was devoted to the national Slovenian movement. Alongside several operettas, he composed five operas (the last, Pavliha , was finished posthumously by I. Muhvić), of which Urh, grof celjski (Ulrich, Count of Celje) was the first all-sung Slovenian opera. Zlatorog (Goldenhorn) is his best opera in terms of musical technique and artistic achievement. His musical-stage works were performed in Ljubljana, Maribor, Zagreb, and in the Czech lands. Among his most important works are

Article

conduct The Queen of Spades at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg in 1912 , described it as ‘astonishingly fresh. All kinds of clichés were erased, and the opera came across to the listener in a new, lively way, as if it had just been “washed”.’ At Mamontov’s theatre Rachmaninoff also formed a close friendship with Chaliapin (who sang with the company), and during a summer holiday in 1898 they made intensive studies together of the operas of Rimsky-Korsakov and Musorgsky, particularly Boris Godunov . Novosti (London)

Article

Jeremy Dibble and Jennifer Spencer

emotional note, as in his Ode to the Passions ( 1898 ). This tendency is also largely true of his contribution to opera. The diminutive canvas of his ‘comedietta’ One Too Many ( 1874 ) has a charm and subtlety that befits Cowen's natural sense of wit. His attempts at serious opera, on the other hand, were much less happy. His one verismo opera, Signa ( 1892 ), intended to follow the production of Sullivan's Ivanhoe at D'Oyly Carte's new Royal English Opera House, was performed twice at the Teatro Dal Verme, Milan, in November 1893 (reduced from four acts to three)

Article

Oldřich Pukl

became a leading light in the musical life of Slovakia. He was head of opera at the newly established Slovak National Theatre, director of the Bratislava radio station and a reader at both the university and the music academy. He also conducted concerts for the Cultural Union for Slovakia. His work at the National Theatre included giving the premières of Bella’s Wieland der Schmied ( 1926 ) and Figuš’s Detvan ( 1928 ). In 1930 he committed suicide by jumping from an upper window of the Zagreb Opera House. As a composer Nedbal achieved world renown for his operettas

Article

Lionel Salter

symphonies of Schumann and Brahms (all of which he recorded) and the works of his fellow-countrymen (Martinů, Janáček etc.) and of Mahler, which suited his romantic, rhythmically flexible approach. He gave the premières of several works by Martinů, Martin's 6 Monologe aus ‘Jedermann’ ( 1949 ) and Schoenberg's Die Jakobsleiter ( 1961 ). He was greatly respected and liked by orchestras everywhere, though it was sometimes felt that he talked too much at rehearsals. As a composer in a neo-Romantic idiom his output included the operas Veronika ( 1947 , Brno), Cornelia

Article

Joachim E. Berendt

revised by Wolfram Knauer

Mangelsdorff (with whom he also occasionally performed in the German All Stars), and, from 1986 , collaborated with the songwriter Konstantin Wecker. In his early work Dauner’s piano playing showed traces of Bill Evans (ii) and Paul Bley, but he soon developed an individual virtuoso style combining intense free improvisation with lyrical and meditative passages. His compositions in the mid- to late 1960s made use of jazz and contemporary art music, and often incorporated elements of theatre, opera, and dance; Free Action (originally performed at the Berliner Jazztage

Article

Alexander L. Ringer

choice (Saul Bellow’s Henderson, the Rain King ), appears to persist at times. Fortunately, some of its finest musical moments have been recaptured in an identically titled chamber work as well as in the separately published solo piece Flutings for Paula ( 1977 ). Works Opera Lily (3, Kirchner, after S. Bellow: Henderson, the Rain King ), 1973–6 New York, 14 April 1977, arr. S, tape, chbr ens, 1973 Orchestral Piece, pf, orch, 1946, unpubd Sinfonia, 1951 Pf Conc. no.1, 1953 Toccata, str, wind, perc, 1955 Conc., vn, vc, 10 wind, perc, 1960 Pf Conc

Article

I.M. Yampol′sky

revised by Richard Wigmore

h Gauk ’s conducting class at the Moscow Conservatory. He began his conducting career with All-Union Radio in 1953 (while still a student at the conservatory), and from 1955 was an assistant and then a conductor at the Bol′shoy Theatre; later he was principal conductor ( 1962–4 ). The theatre and opera were in his blood from childhood: his father had been a soloist at the Bol′shoy and his mother an artist in a mime ensemble. He conducted many of Rimsky-Korsakov’s operas, Dargomïzhsky’s Rusalka , Borodin’s Prince Igor and Tchaikovsky’s The Queen of Spades ;

Article

Douglas Townsend

intention of creating ‘a polyrhythmic kaleidoscope in which melody, harmony and speech mingle’, the neo-classical Clarinet Concerto ( 1988 ), and the opera Masada ( 1995 ), both of which make use of aleatory and 12-note techniques. Underlying all his music is a sense of balance and formal design showing a discipline and control which reflects his early classical training. Works Dramatic A Children’s Opera (Kaufman), 1967 The Nothing Ballet, 1971 Ballet Music, 1975 Masada (op, 3, C. Eisendrath), 1995 Orch and choral Sym. no.1, str, 1966 Conc.,

Article

Marcello Piras

still largely awaits decipherment. Works ( * Collaborative works with Billy Strayhorn. For the nature and extent of such collaboration, see van de Leur, 2002. ) theatrical Operas Boola (Ellington, inc.), 1939 Shout up a Morning, musical drama (P. Farrow, unproduced), 1970 Queenie Pie, street opera (Ellington, inc., compl. M. Ellington, M. Peress), Philadelphia, 1986 Musical comedies Harlem is Heaven (unproduced), 1937 H.M.S. Times Square (unproduced), 1943–5

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

1844 , from teaching in 1854 and from directing the institute in 1858 . Although he composed a number of original works, including church music, symphonic music, an unperformed opera Scipio ( 1818 ), songs and much chamber and piano music, it is for his teaching manuals and theoretical and critical writings that Fröhlich is renowned. As a theorist he was thorough and above all practical in his approach; as a teacher he demanded that theory and practice should go hand in hand; as a critic, especially for the journal Caecilia , he showed an alert understanding

Article

David Scott

e for all broadcast chamber music and recitals. In 1938 he devised a memorable series ‘Handel in Rome’. After the war he returned to the BBC to plan the Third Programme, which gave its first broadcast in 1946 . Lewis took charge of the organization and general direction of all Third Programme music. In 1947 he was elected Peyton and Barber Professor of Music at Birmingham University, where he continued his pioneering activities. During his 21-year professorship he conducted many revivals of orchestral, choral and stage works, particularly Handel operas; these

Article

Israel J. Katz

3 English Songs (O. Wilde, A. Swinburne, G. Meredith), op.15 (1912) 7 other pubd songs; 23 unpubd songs, 1889–1901 Other works, all unpubd 14 chbr works, up to 1900 10 pf works, 1890–97 Principal publishers Schirmer, Ditson, H.W. Gray Writings ed.: The Development of Opera: from its Earliest Beginnings to the Masterworks of Gluck (New York, 1913) ‘“Boris Godounoff” and the Life of Moussorgsky’; ‘Boris Godounoff: a Drama of the

Article

received no less than 100 performances; by the end of the century, with the exception of Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar , it had outstripped in popularity all other operas, including those of Meyerbeer to which it is partially indebted. Tchaikovsky considered that, in spite of ‘much padding’, Demon contained ‘lovely things’, and it certainly influenced his opera Yevgeny Onegin , which, like Demon is an opera in ‘Three Acts, Seven Scenes’. The delicate style of the Russian chamber romance which epitomizes the portrayal of Rubinstein’s Tamara is echoed in Tchaikovsky’s

Article

Noel Malcolm

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

intervals, and note patterns are constantly adapted and recombined. As Enescu worked on his opera Oedipe during the 1920s, this method lent itself naturally to the elaboration of leitmotifs: one modern study (by Octavian Cosma) has identified 21 such motifs in the work, although their functioning is so germinal and cellular that it is possible for listeners to experience the whole work without being aware of the presence of leitmotifs at all. Another feature of the opera is the minutely detailed orchestration, which frequently makes use of solo instruments within

Article

Peter Franklin

t Magyar aristocrat Count Géza Zichy. His agenda, supported by the conservative press and the new political climate, was clear: to remove from Mahler all executive power over artistic decisions. Zichy, a one-armed pianist with pretensions as a poet and composer, imposed his own artistic views with a determination that was coloured by anti-Semitic prejudice. Mahler's final triumph in Budapest was another Mozart opera, mounted before Zichy took over: a production of Don Giovanni in which he aimed for an unfashionable degree of ‘authenticity’ by restoring the original

Article

Gerard Béhague

such eclecticism that it is difficult to isolate constant features, although a tendency to polytonality, tone clusters, atonality and serialism can be discerned. Indeed, the Variações em busca de um tema ( 1972 ) were designed to accommodate ‘all present-day compositional processes’. In the 1970s Mignone returned to opera, with O chalaça ( 1973 ), one of the best works in the contemporary operatic repertory in Brazil, and O sargento de milícias ( 1978 ), both on librettos by H. Mello Nóbrega. He utilized a number of popular musical themes in the latter, regaining

Article

Jennifer Doctor, Judith LeGrove, Paul Banks, Heather Wiebe and Philip Brett

E1949, p.278), the opera met with success from the moment of its first performance at Sadler’s Wells Theatre, London, on 7 June 1945 ( see Opera ). It was quickly taken up by other companies in Europe and the USA, and in due course became one of the rare 20th-century operas to enter the repertory. Britten’s actual return to England had been anticlimactic. Although the tribunal he faced, as a conscientious objector, called him up for non-combatant duties, he was allowed on appeal to go free. This was also true of Pears. Their giving recitals all over the country

Article

Andrew Lamb

avoid writing numbers for performers who were comics rather than singers. In fact the chief comic role, Njegus, has no solo singing. Lehár was thus more than usually free to follow his own inclination without extraneous influences. Above all, however, he was fortunate in having the good text on which an operetta, far more than an opera, is dependent. The waltzes, which were de rigueur in Viennese operetta, were able to occur as an integral part of the action, and the book strikes an ideal balance between reality and fantasy, with a fine combination of romance and wit

Article

Philip L. Scowcroft

flute in orchestras in Harrogate, then at Bournemouth under Dan Godfrey. He subsequently conducted at various London theatres (among them the Adelphi, Terry's, Daly's and Drury Lane), for over 30 years. He toured the USA with Messager's Véronique and recorded excerpts from the Savoy operas. He also composed musicals of his own, but these have survived less well than the splendidly scored orchestral works produced for Boosey & Hawkes, both original pieces and arrangements, for whom he was a staff composer. His compositions include suites and separate movements, many