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Article

Andrew Lamb

avoid writing numbers for performers who were comics rather than singers. In fact the chief comic role, Njegus, has no solo singing. Lehár was thus more than usually free to follow his own inclination without extraneous influences. Above all, however, he was fortunate in having the good text on which an operetta, far more than an opera, is dependent. The waltzes, which were de rigueur in Viennese operetta, were able to occur as an integral part of the action, and the book strikes an ideal balance between reality and fantasy, with a fine combination of romance and wit

Article

Black, el payaso (opereta), 1942 Don Manolito (sainete madrileño), 1943 La eterna canción (sainete madrileño), 1945 Los burladores (zar), 1948 Entre Sevilla y Triana (sainete andaluz), 1950 La opera del mogollón (zar bufa), 1954 Brindis (revista), 1955 Las de Caín (comedia musical), 1958, collab. P. Sorozábal jr; Juan José (drama lírico popular), unperf. Arrs. (all perf. Madrid) H. Berté: Die Dreimäderlhaus (after Schubert), 1935 Albéniz: San Antonio de la Florida Fuencarral, 1954 F.A. Barbieri: Pan y toros, 1960 Albéniz: Pepita Jiménez, 1964

Article

Arthur Jacobs

helpfully supplied by an oboe. Exceptionally, and like its immediate predecessor Trial by Jury , The Zoo is an all-sung one-acter. All the later, longer operettas include speech, and all of Gilbert's are in two acts, except for Princess Ida (three acts), where the librettist in parodying Tennyson's The Princess modelled the structure on his own previously written play in spoken verse. In adopting some of the standard components of opera buffa and opéra comique (the mid-Victorian popularity of Auber should not be forgotten), Sullivan summoned verve and individuality

Article

George J. Ferencz

education are obscure, though an honorary doctorate was awarded by Bethany College (Kansas) in 1935 . Pietro Floridia was his principal teacher of composition and orchestration. A fine clarinettist, Shilkret played with the Russian SO, as well as New York's SO, PO and Metropolitan Opera orchestra. He also performed in bands led by Sousa, Pryor and Goldman. Freelance recording engagements led to employment at the Victor Talking Machine Corporation (later RCA Victor) before 1920 . He is best known for his work at Victor where, as Director of Light Music, he conducted

Article

Bálint Vázsonyi

this field are all of a high standard. The rest of his output is variable, but he composed excellent works in almost every genre. They show an unerring mastery of form and instrumentation, fluency, and a rich but utterly natural sense of harmony, which enabled him to make unbridled chromatic excursions without ever losing the tonal centre. He succeeded in blending the ‘Brahmsian’ preservation of classical form with the Lisztian concept of motivic strands binding together a large-scale work. His best opera, Der Tenor , is one of the few true comic operas written in the

Article

John Tyrrell

church music, and from 1845 Valachian folk music elements began to appear in his music. Although he wrote an opera to a Russian text ( Tamara , unperformed) and some Russian romances (to texts by A.J. Pukarov and N.A. Nekrasov) his contacts with Russian composers and his long stay in Russia left little trace. In spirit and idiom his works hardly go further than his early patriotic Moravian music and by later years were all but forgotten. In addition to two operas (including the one-act Zajatá , ‘The Woman Captive’, given in Prague in 1869 ), he wrote two cantatas, marches

Article

Peter Branscombe and Dorothea Link

Carltheater (formerly the Theater in der Leopoldstadt). Year after year he turned out a series of theatre scores, ranging from overtures and incidental music to operettas, opera parodies and even the occasional opera. Among his greatest successes were Gervinus ( 1849 ), Flotte Bursche ( 1863 ) and Fatinitza ( 1876 ), each of which received 100 or more performances in a few years; and, above all, Boccaccio ( 1879 ), which he referred to as ‘the greatest success of my life’. In the late 1870s he purchased an estate in Lower Austria, and his increasing fame was reflected

Article

Kevin O’Brien

music in general and of language in particular which make for a work list that is consistent yet original. His archives are housed at the performance division of the Library of Congress. The majority of his scores are held at the American Composers Alliance. Works Operas The Decorator (F. Getlein, D. Getlein), 5 vv, chbr orch, 1959 The Birthday of the Infanta (M. Ewald after O. Wilde), 8 vv, chorus, orch, 1993 Choral Dante’s Praises to the Virgin Mother, 1952 Mass #3, 1952

Article

Ursel Schlicht

recorded her first work for large ensemble, A Genuine Tong Funeral (RCA). Two years later Charlie Haden commissioned her to arrange music for his album Liberation Music Orchestra ( 1969 , Imp.), and she subsequently arranged for all of the group’s future albums. The first performance of her best-known work, the genre-bending avant-garde jazz opera Escalator over the Hill ( 1971 , with lyrics by Paul Haines), featured a huge cast that included Jack Bruce, Linda Ronstadt, Don Cherry, and John McLaughlin. In 1964 Bley helped to organize the Jazz Composer’s Guild. The

Article

Carmen Ottner

his work, namely the Hungarian influence, which remains prominent even in his penultimate composition, the Quintet in A major of 1938 . He absorbed all the important elements of the Hungarian idiom to the point that it became a constant part of his personal style. It is also evident in the first, second and fourth symphonies, in the quintets, in the Variationen über ein Husarenlied and most notably in his first opera Notre Dame , where it is used to characterize the gypsy Esmeralda: Karl Goldmark described the famous Intermezzo as ‘the most beautiful of gypsy music’

Article

John Carmody

as a music examiner for Trinity College, London, until his death at sea, en route to England. All his life Orchard composed in a dated English style; his comparable conservatism as an educator and public figure, delayed the development of modernist trends in Sydney. His writings include an autobiography, The Distant View (Sydney, 1943 ), and Music in Australia (Melbourne, 1952 ). He was awarded the OBE in 1936 . Works ( selective list ) Operas The Coquette, or A Suicidal Policy (comic op, W.J. Curtis), 1905, Palace, Sydney, 28 Aug 1905

Article

Keith Moore

incorporating a rock group and requiring three conductors. From 1976 he focussed on assimilating the entire American musical tradition, including hymn tunes, marches and ragtime, and with Americana, or, A New Tale of the Genii he began his most ambitious project yet: a cycle of three operas, each encompassing a century of America’s musical heritage. Later works such as Arabesques Redux and The Blue Box use modes taken from jazz and non-Western traditional musics. Works ( selective list ) Dramatic Pyramus and Thisbe (chbr

Article

Gilbert Chase

revised by David Wright and Lars Helgert

and eclectic, represented by such works as the Symphony in G, the early concertos, various choral works, and the orchestral Symphony of Chorales based on chorales by Bach. Also present is an element of American populism, as in the setting of Sandburg’s The Prairie and the comic opera The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County on the story by Mark Twain. The transitional phase began in 1956 , when Foss decided to experiment with ensemble improvisation, primarily for the benefit of his students at UCLA. A year later he founded the Improvisation Chamber Ensemble and

Article

John W. Wagner

until 1811 , his longest period of residence at one address being from 1801 to 1810 at 59 Maiden Lane. From 1792 until the end of March 1808 , he was conductor of the orchestra at the Park Street Theatre, where his duties included arranging and composing music for many ballad operas and other musical productions. He also operated his own ‘musical repository’, where he gave lessons and sold musical instruments and music composed by himself and others. Although his musical activities in Boston began as early as 1805 , the family did not move there until 1811

Article

Reinhold Sietz

revised by Matthias Wiegandt

adverse criticism. An indication of Hiller's pre-eminent position in musical life is given by his voluminous correspondence with composers, performers and publishers, which has yet been edited only partially. Works printed works published in Leipzig unless otherwise stated Operas all published in vocal score Romilda (os, G. Rossi), Milan, Scala, 8 Jan 1839, selected pieces (Milan, c 1839) Der Traum in der Christnacht (3, C. Gollmick, after E. Raupach), Dresden, 9 April 1845 ( c 1845) Konradin, der letzte Hohenstaufen (R. Reinick), Dresden, 13 Oct 1847 Der Advokat

Article

Victoria Eli Rodríguez

years over the Comité Nacional Cubano de la Música. In 1971 he was elected president of the music section of the Unión de Escritores y Artistas de Cuba (UNEAC). He received various national and international prizes for his music. Ardévol wrote over 130 works, covering all genres except opera. His early pieces ( 1924–30 ) show the influence of Debussy, Stravinsky and the keyboard writing of Scarlatti. From 1930 his music assumed an expressionist atonality, and became at once more experimental and more systematic in a quasi-serialist manner. His Tres ricercari

Article

Gerald R. Benjamin

composers and thought that the development of the ‘13th sound’ revolution would in itself be sufficient to give universal renown to Mexico. Out of it would result a new order, less complex though providing for complexity, less constrained though providing for restraint. Works Operas Without microtones La princesse Oïna (Ossian) (1, H. Albert), 1902 México en 1810 (Matilde) (4, L. Viramontes), 1909 Xulitl (3, C. d’Erzel), 1921, rev. 1947 Orchestral With microtones Sym. no.1 ‘Colombia’, c 1926 Serenata, ¼-tone vc, orch, 1926 Sym. no

Article

Andrée Desautels

the Société des Symphonistes, which he organized in 1878 , and the Montreal Philharmonic Society ( 1880–99 ), as well as conducting the orchestra in concerts given by Emma Albani. Through these and two other concert societies he founded, Couture introduced the Montreal public to the operas of Wagner (which he studied on a trip to Bayreuth in 1893 ) and other Classical and Romantic repertory. Couture’s own compositional abilities are revealed in two important late works, a requiem and the oratorio Jean le Précurseur , which is in three sections. The first, La nativité

Article

Sigrid Wiesmann

revised by Daniel Ender

similar to speech. All of Furrer’s operatic works are based on ancient myths transformed into a modern perspective, as in BEGEHREN ( 1999–2001 ), in which the tale of Orpheus is represented by ancient and recent texts and musically reduced to the relationship between a female and a male voice. Many of his compositions are generated by ‘overpainting’ other works. In Orpheus’ Bücher ( 2001 ), for example, a scene from BEGEHREN is ‘expanded’ for orchestra, projecting some of the parts into a larger range. Spatiality plays an important role in all of Furrer’s music

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

century. Works ( selective list ) Edition Sobraniye sochineniy v dvadtsati chetïryokh tomakh [Collected works in 24 volumes] (Moscow, 1982–91) Stage and dramatic Ballets Schast′ye [Happiness] (3, G. Hovhanesian, choreog. I. Arbatov), 1939, Yerevan, Theatre of Opera and Ballet, Sept 1939 Gayane (4, K. Derzhavin, choreog. N. Anisimova), 1942, Perm′, 9 Dec 1942, rev. (3, B.V. Pletnyov, choreog. V. Vajnonen), 1957, Moscow, Bol′shoy, 1957 [from Schast′ye] Spartacus (4, N. Volkov, choreog. L. Yakobson), 1950–54, Leningrad, Kirov, 26 Dec 1956, rev. (3