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Article

Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

career commentators noted ‘American’ traits in his music, as in the String Quartet no.2 and the scherzos of his first two symphonies. Some works, such as the lyric drama Judith , show an interest in French sonorities, while The Padrone , for all its evocation of American urban life, draws on the techniques of verismo opera. In the scherzo of the Second Symphony he uses a pentatonic melody resembling black American song nine years before Dvořák included the better-known example in his Symphony no.9 (‘From the New World’). Most movements of Chadwick’s symphony use

Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

Lenin’), 1957 , and Pentru marele octombrie (‘For the Great October’), 1960 . His dramatic temperament is evident in the operas Meşterul Manole (‘Master Manole’) and Michelangelo , but even more so in the oratorios Horia and 1907 and in the Symphony no.3 ‘Reconstructia’. The basis of his style evolved from late Romanticism to serialism in the manner of the Second Viennese School and reveals a great mastery of compositional technique in all genres; His final mature manner was realized in several works of a nationalist spirit written between 1950 and 1966

Article

Gérard Streletski

of his teachers, particularly Halévy and Berton. However, it was above all his talents as an orchestrator that were recognized by his contemporaries; Gounod and Berlioz in particular paid tribute to his skill. Works MSS at F-Pn, printed works published in Paris Sacred 3 requiems op.7, 1843 (n.d.) op.28 no.1, 1877 op.28 no.2, 1870 Choeurs religieux, hymnes, op.18 (1847) O salutaris, op.14a, 1847 (n.d.) Prière pour la paix, op.28 no.6 (1870) Dramatic Operas Samson, 1837, lost Lionel Foscari (1), 1841, F-Pn *; Le violon enchanté

Article

Andrea Lanza

sera and in 1878 succeeded his father as professor of aesthetics at the Milan Conservatory. In 1880 he moved to London, where he was a teacher and translator of Italian, and occasional music critic. Alberto’s daughter, Elisa, composed the opera Mr Sampson of Omaha ( 1888 , Omaha, Nebraska). Works all printed works published in Milan Stage La fidanzata di Lammermoor (dramma per musica, 2, P. Beltrame, after W. Scott), Padua, Nuovissimo, 24 Feb 1834, I-Mr *, excerpts, pf acc. (1836) Don Chisciotte (melodramma

Article

Lester Trimble

revised by Severine Neff

Conferences. In addition Luening was a co-founder of ACA ( 1938 ) and the American Music Center ( 1939 ). In 1944 Luening was appointed director of opera productions at Columbia University, where he developed a graduate seminar in composition, and professor at Barnard College. During his tenure at Columbia he conducted the world premières of Menotti’s opera The Medium , Thomson’s The Mother of Us All , and his own opera Evangeline . Luening was a founder of CRI ( 1954 ) and a trustee of the American Academy in Rome ( 1953–70 ), where he was also composer-in-residence

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

Polish composers. From 1905 to 1908 he was director and conductor of the Warsaw PO, and from 1907 was also director of the opera. He occasionally directed choirs. Throughout his life he wrote music criticism for the daily press and for journals. In his concert reviews he also drew attention to more general musical problems. Noskowski was one of the most important Polish composers of the second half of the 19th century. He composed all types of music, including popular works intended for a wide public and pieces for children. His large output was uneven in quality

Article

E. Eugene Helm

revised by Darrell Berg

of Amor e Psiche , he wrote to his attendant Pöllnitz: ‘You will tell Agricola that he must change all of Coli’s arias – they are worthless – as well as those of Romani, along with the recitatives, which are deplorable from one end to the other’. An effort of 1772 entitled Oreste e Pilade , ordered by Frederick as entertainment for a visit by the Queen of Sweden and the Duchess of Brunswick, proved to be so far from what Frederick wanted that the entire opera had to be rewritten and retitled I greci in Tauride . As a performer-teacher, and in aspects of composition

Article

Warren M. Sherk

head of the composition department. He spent the next three years teaching privately in Vienna and Leipzig, where he studied with composers Max Reger and Hans Sitt. Back in the United States, he lived in Georgia from 1912 to 1916 , directing the Atlanta Philharmonic, conducting light opera, and teaching at Brenau College in Gainesville. After moving to New York, he taught at the Malkin School of Music and contributed music to a National Academy of Music university course. He spent 1919 in Great Britain and France, conducting vaudeville shows in Paris. After he settled

Article

John Warrack and Rosemary Williamson

spirit of the German; its most crucial fault is that what is archaic in German sounds merely quaint in English. Of Corder’s own operas, only Nordisa met with any success, being widely performed after its première on 26 January 1887 by the Carl Rosa Opera Company at the Royal Court Theatre, Liverpool. But after the death of Carl Rosa, Corder was forced to abandon his hopes of a career as a composer for an established English opera, and turned to teaching. From 1888 he was a professor of composition at the RAM (curator, 1889 ), and there taught many composers

Article

Lance W. Brunner

revised by Greg A Steinke

imagination. His Five Pieces after Paintings by Andrew Wyeth explore a number of styles, from sophisticated chromatic counterpoint to rock and jazz rhythms to Ivesian collage and layering, resulting in a vivid programmatic tapestry characteristic of his instrumental palette. Works Operas The Birthday of the Infanta (Nelson), 1955–6 Hamaguchi (M. Miller), 1981 Choral The Christmas Story (Bible), cantata, Bar, nar, SATB, brass, perc, org, 1958, arr. SATB, orch; 5 Anthems for Young Choirs (Heb. Book of Prayer), SA, pf, 1961 3 Ancient Prayers (Heb. Book of Prayer), SATB

Article

Robert Orledge and Andrew Thomson

Davies : ‘The French Wagnerians’, Opera , 19 (1968), 351–7 L. Davies : César Franck and his Circle (London, 1970/ R ) A. Balsan : ‘L’hérédité Drômoise de Vincent d’Indy: notes généalogiques’, Revue Drômoise , no.421 (Oct 1981), 373–7 S. Giocanti : ‘Vincent d’Indy et le régionalisme musical’, France Latine , no.113 (1991), 81–104 See also Franck, César, §1: Life Chabrier, Emmanuel, §2: Works Symphonic poem, §6: France See also from The New Grove Dictionary of Opera : Indy, (Paul Marie Théodore) Vincent d’ (opera) ; Etranger, L’ ; Fervaal

Article

Kristina Yapova

time of its new epoch. His musical work is mainly choral and is divided between church and secular genres. The first is represented mainly by the cycles of chants for the Liturgy and for the All-Night Vigil, the second by the songs based on Bulgarian folklore. A many-sided creative person, Christov has exerted a profound impact upon the generations after him who worked in all fields of Bulgarian music culture. Works (selective list) Orchestral Two Balkanski suiti [Balkan Suite Nos.1, 2], 1903, 1916 Turjestvena ouvertura ‘Ivaylo’ [Festive Overture Ivailo], 1906 Turjestven

Article

Deborah Schwartz-Kates

Argentina and one of the most influential members of the Grupo Renovación. He skillfully combined a broad spectrum of national sources (representing indigenous, criollo , and urban popular traditions) with contemporary techniques. Gianneo composed approximately 100 works covering all genres (except opera) and is best known for his orchestral and chamber music. His early compositions, exemplified by the symphonic poems Turay-Turay ( 1927 ) and El tarco en flor ( 1930 ), reveal his fascination with the indigenous culture and landscape of northwestern Argentina. After joining

Article

Robert Parker

orchestra as a symphonic suite in five movements. Ancient Greek theatre was also the basis for two lesser-known later works: the cantata Prometheus Bound ( 1956 ) and Upingos ( 1957 ), incidental music for solo oboe for Euripides' Hippolytus . But though he wrote five ballets, an opera and incidental music, Chávez was not notably a composer for the theatre. His ballets are better known as concert pieces; he failed to get either El fuego nuevo or Pirámide staged, and Los cuatro soles did not reach production until 1951 in the favourable political climate that

Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

writing for the opera ( Orestes and Oedipus , 2001 ) and explored the genres of symphony and concerto, faithful to the idea of employing obsessive, laconic motives (sometimes using alphorn signals), in a harmonic and gestural austerity. Works ( selective list ) Stage Secretul lui Don Giovanni [Don Giovanni’s Secret] (I. Balea, after D. Tamás), 1969, Cluj, 8 July 1970 Oreste-Oedipe (Olivier Apert), 1999–2001, Cluj, 4 April 2007 Film scores The Verdict (Ferenc Kósa), 1970 Red Apples (Alexandru Tatos), 1976 Above All (Nicolae Mărgineanu

Article

Evgeny Machavariani

revised by Gulbat Toradze

by his continuing interest in folk choral singing, as well as by his early work as a choirmaster. This evolution led him naturally to opera, by way of a programmatic symphonic poem ( Mtsïri , 1956 ), songs to words by Pshavela and Pushkin, and vocal orchestral cycles on texts by G. Tabidze and other Georgian poets ( 1957–9 ), works distinguished by an ever more noticeable social element. Mindia ( 1960 ) was the culminating opera, an organic solution of new problems, glorifying the wisdom of a harmonious union between man and nature. It is built on the transformation

Article

Delmer D. Rogers

explored by American composers in the 19th century. Bristow's best-known works, including his opera Rip Van Winkle , oratorio Daniel , and symphonies in D minor, op.24, and F♯ minor, op.26, have been revived in either recordings or live performances. However, many fine unknown works, such as his two string quartets, two duos for violin and viola, Arcadian Symphonie , Niagara Symphony , violin sonata, solo song The Abode of Music and piano piece Dreamland , which are all in manuscript, reveal a talented composer. A valuable autobiographical sketch, Life of a Musician

Article

Jennifer Spencer

revised by Edward Garden

failure to attend. Lyadov was however readmitted early in 1878 to prepare his graduation composition, the final scene from Schiller’s Die Braut von Messina , which was performed with great success on 23 May/4 June. Of the many influences on this work, the most interesting is Cui's opera William Ratcliff ( 1861–8 ), which had been composed with much help from Balakirev, and it is not surprising that Cui's and Stasov's reviews were complimentary. In September 1878 Lyadov became a teacher of elementary theory at the conservatory, taking over the instruction of advanced

Article

Stuart Campbell

resignation Balakirev was appointed director on 28 January/ 9 February 1868 , retaining the post until the spring of 1874 , though latterly only nominally. 2. 1866–72. In 1866 Glinka’s sister Lyudmila Shestakova asked Balakirev to take charge of performances of her brother’s operas in Prague; devoted as he was to Glinka, Balakirev accepted. After delays caused by the Austro-Prussian War, he conducted Ruslan and Lyudmila there on 4/16, 5/17 and 7/ 19 February 1867 and A Life for the Tsar on 10/22 February. Balakirev was never easy to get on with if disagreement

Article

Gerard Béhague

Tremembé are imaginatively orchestrated, with, in Flor , effective use of typical Brazilian percussion instruments, including the cavaquinho (a variety of ukulele), the cuíca (a friction drum) and the agogô (a cowbell). From the association with Andrade there resulted a one-act comic opera, Pedro Malazarte ( 1932 ), introduced with great success in Rio de Janeiro in 1952 ; his one-act lyric tragedy Um homem só ( 1960 ), on a libretto by the poet Gianfrancesco Guarnieri, was produced in Rio in 1962 to moderate acclaim. But it was in the many solo songs that Guarnieri