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Article

Jennifer Spencer

revised by Edward Garden

failure to attend. Lyadov was however readmitted early in 1878 to prepare his graduation composition, the final scene from Schiller’s Die Braut von Messina , which was performed with great success on 23 May/4 June. Of the many influences on this work, the most interesting is Cui's opera William Ratcliff ( 1861–8 ), which had been composed with much help from Balakirev, and it is not surprising that Cui's and Stasov's reviews were complimentary. In September 1878 Lyadov became a teacher of elementary theory at the conservatory, taking over the instruction of advanced

Article

Stuart Campbell

resignation Balakirev was appointed director on 28 January/ 9 February 1868 , retaining the post until the spring of 1874 , though latterly only nominally. 2. 1866–72. In 1866 Glinka’s sister Lyudmila Shestakova asked Balakirev to take charge of performances of her brother’s operas in Prague; devoted as he was to Glinka, Balakirev accepted. After delays caused by the Austro-Prussian War, he conducted Ruslan and Lyudmila there on 4/16, 5/17 and 7/ 19 February 1867 and A Life for the Tsar on 10/22 February. Balakirev was never easy to get on with if disagreement

Article

Gerard Béhague

Tremembé are imaginatively orchestrated, with, in Flor , effective use of typical Brazilian percussion instruments, including the cavaquinho (a variety of ukulele), the cuíca (a friction drum) and the agogô (a cowbell). From the association with Andrade there resulted a one-act comic opera, Pedro Malazarte ( 1932 ), introduced with great success in Rio de Janeiro in 1952 ; his one-act lyric tragedy Um homem só ( 1960 ), on a libretto by the poet Gianfrancesco Guarnieri, was produced in Rio in 1962 to moderate acclaim. But it was in the many solo songs that Guarnieri

Article

Jürgen Schaarwächter

Rootham’, MT , 79 (1938), 17–22 F. Knight : Cambridge Music from the Middle Ages to Modern Times (Cambridge and New York, 1980) K. Shenton : ‘Cyril Bradley Rootham’, British Music Society Journal , 7 (1985), 30–37 A.-M.H. Forbes : ‘A Comparative Study of Folk Material in Opera: Bantock’s The Seal Woman and Rootham’s The Two Sisters ’, MR , 51 (1990), 95–115 J. Schaarwächter : ‘Cyril Bradley Rootham’, British Music Society Newsletter , no.71 (1996), 257–60 C.W. Price : Lost in the Revival: The Sacred Choral Music of Cyril Bradley Rootham (1875-1938)

Article

Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(Horace: OdesI), 4 solo vv, chorus, c 1820, autograph MS in Cincinnati Art Museum; Hymnus in solemnia academiae: Felix ad est, solo v, chorus, 1825, lost Das Gastmahl (Goethe), solo vv, chorus (Berlin, 1832) Divis orte bonis optime prussiae, chorus, lost Opera, scenas etc.: Das Orakel (op, C.F. Gellert), c 1778, frag., lost O Dio, se in questo istante (scena and aria, P. Metastasio), 1781, D-B ; Misero me! ah! che veggo! (scena and aria, Metastasio), 1783, lost Barbaro, che a tuoi nodi (scena and aria, Metastasio), S

Article

Manica Špendal

revised by Jernej Weiss

Ljubljana Cathedral to the European level. His contribution was all the more valuable because he was one of the very few thoroughly educated professional musicians in Ljubljana at the time. Among his other compositions are sacred works (eight mass settings in Latin, three in Slovenian, a Glagolitic Mass, several collections of Graduale, Offertorium, and Tantum ergo, and four Te Deum), secular occasional cantatas ( Domovini , ‘To My Homeland’, 1883 ; Turki na Slevici , ‘Turks in Slevica’, 1907 ), a five-act opera, Dom in rod (‘Home and Family’, 1920–23 , to a libretto

Article

Michael Fend

to the fore in the thematic development of the final movement. In a similarly experimental fashion, in Quartet no.6 the openings of all the previous movements are quoted in the finale. In Quartet no.1, his most popular quartet, movements are linked thematically and by emphasizing contrapuntal technique; its Scherzo is a ‘Spanish’ genre piece with refined texture and colourful instrumentation. Cherubini's overtures to his French operas became popular concert overtures in their own right during the 19th century. He quickly replaced the Italian overture of Ifigenia in

Article

Rachel Samet

American conductor , singer , and teacher . After attending Tougaloo College (BA 1966 ), he moved to New York City, seeking a career as an operatic tenor. He attended the Manhattan School of Music (MA 1968 , DMA 1984 ) and performed as a singer with several opera companies, including Houston Grand Opera (Joplin’s Treemonisha , 1982 ) and on Broadway. He is best known as a prominent African American conductor; he created and headed the internationally acclaimed Boys Choir of Harlem, an organization he founded in 1968 as an after-school music program. The choir

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

the principles outlined in his treatise. His operas are cast in the style of Rossini and his instrumental works show his adoption of the Haydn–Beethoven Viennese style. His symphony ( 1855 ), composed for Mannheim, follows Beethoven's monumental approach to form and is one of the most substantial and richly scored Polish Symphonies of the period. Mirecki also wrote one of the earliest European treatises on orchestration, Trattato intorno agli instrumenti ed all'instrumentazione (Milan, 1825 ). Works Operas Pułavski, before 1822, lost

Article

Christopher Hailey

direction), as well as the concert première with piano of his first opera, Flammen , in the Bösendorfer-Saal on 24 April 1902 . Several of his early works and most of his songs were published (by this time he had dropped the second ‘c’ in his surname), and his Intermezzo won first prize in a competition sponsored by the Neue musikalische Presse . Probably in the midst of this flurry of early success, though possibly as late as 1904 , he began Der ferne Klang , for which, as with all his subsequent operas, he wrote his own libretto. He had begun conducting in 1895

Article

Elaine Keillor

Guelph Light Opera and Oratorio Company ( 1955–1974 ), conducted the Bach-Elgar Choir of Hamilton ( 1962–74 ) and was the chorus master of the Canadian Opera Company ( 1973–81 ). In 1979 he was appointed to the faculty of music at the University of Guelph where he later became composer-in-residence and the director of the electronic music studio. He retired in 1994 . Although his early compositions were primarily instrumental, he produced much vocal music later in his career, including an oratorio, The Angels of the Earth ( 1966 ) and a number of operas. Héloise

Article

Giselher Schubert

some of the best conductors of the day, among them Willem Mengelberg, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Fritz Busch and Hermann Scherchen, men who would later champion his compositions. The principal conductor, Ludwig Rottenberg, conducted the German premières of operas by Debussy, Dukas and Bartók and promoted Schreker’s operas above all. (Hindemith married his youngest daughter, Gertrud, in 1924 .) In 1915 Hindemith became the second violinist in Rebner’s string quartet. He also appeared as a violin soloist playing concertos by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Mendelssohn. In 1923

Article

and broke off all relations with Vitzthumb. The theatre’s financial difficulties obliged Compain to resign in 1775 , leaving Vitzthumb to carry on by himself. Hoping to increase receipts he decided to stage operas in Flemish (the Spectacles Nationaux) at La Monnaie, and formed the Troupe Nationale for that purpose, with artists who included his two daughters Anne-Marie ( 1757–77 ) and Marie-Françoise ( 1758–1820 ), and singers he had discovered in the Compagnies Bourgeoises (his future son-in-law Henry Mees, Joseph Debatty and the Borremans sisters, all trained by

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

1844 , from teaching in 1854 and from directing the institute in 1858 . Although he composed a number of original works, including church music, symphonic music, an unperformed opera Scipio ( 1818 ), songs and much chamber and piano music, it is for his teaching manuals and theoretical and critical writings that Fröhlich is renowned. As a theorist he was thorough and above all practical in his approach; as a teacher he demanded that theory and practice should go hand in hand; as a critic, especially for the journal Caecilia , he showed an alert understanding

Article

received no less than 100 performances; by the end of the century, with the exception of Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar , it had outstripped in popularity all other operas, including those of Meyerbeer to which it is partially indebted. Tchaikovsky considered that, in spite of ‘much padding’, Demon contained ‘lovely things’, and it certainly influenced his opera Yevgeny Onegin , which, like Demon is an opera in ‘Three Acts, Seven Scenes’. The delicate style of the Russian chamber romance which epitomizes the portrayal of Rubinstein’s Tamara is echoed in Tchaikovsky’s

Article

Noel Malcolm

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

intervals, and note patterns are constantly adapted and recombined. As Enescu worked on his opera Oedipe during the 1920s, this method lent itself naturally to the elaboration of leitmotifs: one modern study (by Octavian Cosma) has identified 21 such motifs in the work, although their functioning is so germinal and cellular that it is possible for listeners to experience the whole work without being aware of the presence of leitmotifs at all. Another feature of the opera is the minutely detailed orchestration, which frequently makes use of solo instruments within

Article

Bálint Vázsonyi

this field are all of a high standard. The rest of his output is variable, but he composed excellent works in almost every genre. They show an unerring mastery of form and instrumentation, fluency, and a rich but utterly natural sense of harmony, which enabled him to make unbridled chromatic excursions without ever losing the tonal centre. He succeeded in blending the ‘Brahmsian’ preservation of classical form with the Lisztian concept of motivic strands binding together a large-scale work. His best opera, Der Tenor , is one of the few true comic operas written in the

Article

Michael Steinberg

revised by Greg A Steinke

staff conductor briefly at the BBC, and then was music director of the Syracuse (New York) SO ( 1971–4 ). The education of young professionals was one of his particular interests, and he joined the faculty of the Peabody Conservatory as music director of its symphony orchestra and opera in 1976 ; he became music director emeritus in 1980 , continuing as director of the conducting studies program and the Contemporary Music Ensemble until 1998 . He has been a visiting lecturer or consultant at Harvard, the University of Michigan, and Sussex University (England).

Article

John Tyrrell

church music, and from 1845 Valachian folk music elements began to appear in his music. Although he wrote an opera to a Russian text ( Tamara , unperformed) and some Russian romances (to texts by A.J. Pukarov and N.A. Nekrasov) his contacts with Russian composers and his long stay in Russia left little trace. In spirit and idiom his works hardly go further than his early patriotic Moravian music and by later years were all but forgotten. In addition to two operas (including the one-act Zajatá , ‘The Woman Captive’, given in Prague in 1869 ), he wrote two cantatas, marches

Article

Kevin O’Brien

music in general and of language in particular which make for a work list that is consistent yet original. His archives are housed at the performance division of the Library of Congress. The majority of his scores are held at the American Composers Alliance. Works Operas The Decorator (F. Getlein, D. Getlein), 5 vv, chbr orch, 1959 The Birthday of the Infanta (M. Ewald after O. Wilde), 8 vv, chorus, orch, 1993 Choral Dante’s Praises to the Virgin Mother, 1952 Mass #3, 1952