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Article

George Leotsakos

revised by Danae Stefanou

to some extent, that of Stravinsky and Bartók. All but four of the compositions of this period were later withdrawn as he turned towards more novel techniques, including serial writing and aleatory forms. Nevertheless, between the 1960s and 1980s, the composer retained a parallel interest in songwriting, and composed music for several popular songs, many of which (e.g. ‘Do you like Greece?’ and ‘Stin Plateia Avissynias’) enjoyed regular radio airplay and were frequently performed in public in Greece. Kounadis’s operas, though considerably successful in Germany, have

Article

Peter Branscombe

the court theatres dates from 1804 . He is listed in the theatre almanac of 1809 as Kapellmeister Gyrowetz’s deputy, and by the 1815 almanac he had advanced to fourth of the six Kapellmeister at the court theatres. Umlauf retired in 1825 during Barbaia’s direction of the court opera, and applied without success for the post of second Kapellmeister at the Stephansdom. It was 1840 before he again came to the fore, this time as music director at the two court theatres, but his lengthy absence had left him quite out of touch and he soon retired again, dying not long

Article

Stephan D. Lindeman

attracted the favourable notice of Mendelssohn. The two were part of a circle in Berlin that included the baritone and writer Eduard Devrient, librettist of Taubert's operas Der Kirmes (? 1832 ) and Der Zigeuner ( 1832 ). Mendelssohn and Taubert both studied piano with Berger, and correspondence between the two survives. In these letters Mendelssohn identifies the lack of impetus and spirit which, with all of Taubert's real musicianship, refined taste and immense industry, nevertheless hindered him from achieving real importance as a composer. His larger works suffer

Article

Deborah Schwartz-Kates

Argentina and one of the most influential members of the Grupo Renovación. He skillfully combined a broad spectrum of national sources (representing indigenous, criollo , and urban popular traditions) with contemporary techniques. Gianneo composed approximately 100 works covering all genres (except opera) and is best known for his orchestral and chamber music. His early compositions, exemplified by the symphonic poems Turay-Turay ( 1927 ) and El tarco en flor ( 1930 ), reveal his fascination with the indigenous culture and landscape of northwestern Argentina. After joining

Article

Phillip Ramey

as assistant conductor of the Century Opera, New York ( 1912–13 ) and as an assistant conductor at the Bayreuth Festival ( 1913–14 ). During World War I, he entertained troops by writing musicals and an operetta, Who Can Tell? ( c 1918 ). John Philip Sousa appointed him an Army bandmaster after the armistice. In 1919 he returned to Chicago, where he taught first at the Chicago Musical College and then, from 1933 , at the American Conservatory. He was awarded the David Bispham Memorial Medal in 1939 for his Civil War opera Daughter of the South . Collins’s c

Article

Michel Stockhem

activities – including the Concerts Ysaÿe and the giving of private lessons – and up to 1928 he continued to perform in notable concerts in Europe. (They included all Beethovan's sonatas with Clara Haskil and the Violin Concerto conducted by Pablo Casals, for the Beethoven centenary in 1927 .) His right foot was amputated in 1929 . He gave his last concert in November 1930 and finished writing an opera (on a popular Belgian subject), which was given its première at the Théâtre Royal in Liège a few weeks before his death. Ysaÿe's playing influenced three generations

Article

Bo Wallner and Hans Åstrand

chorus and orchestra ( 1888–9 ) presented. Following this he appeared frequently as a soloist and gave around 1000 concerts with Aulin and his quartet all over Sweden. Stenhammar’s début as a conductor had come earlier, in 1897 , when he directed the first performance of his concert overture Excelsior! . He held appointments as artistic director of the Stockholm Philharmonic Society ( 1897–1900 ), of the Royal Opera for one season, of the New Philharmonic Society ( 1904–6 ) and of the newly formed Göteborg Orchestral Society ( 1906–22 ). In this last post he made

Article

Howard Pollack

the public. 2. Works. Copland favored the large public venues of stage, screen, radio, television, and concert hall on the one hand, and the extreme intimacy of the solo piano on the other. His two operas, The Second Hurricane ( 1936 ) and The Tender Land ( 1952–4 ), both deal with young people coming of age: the first, a “play opera” for high school students, celebrates the joys and virtues of social harmony; the latter, a small-scale work for television and university performances, concerns a young woman’s discovery of self. He also began work

Article

Erik Levi

Leipzig Bach Prize ( 1939 ) and the Freiburg Ehrenbürgerecht ( 1939 ) and was given the title of professor by the German government in 1936 . His final opera, Die pfiffige Magd ( 1937–8 ), had an auspicious première in Leipzig in 1939 , and was performed more than 150 times in German theatres over the following five years. Works ( selective list ) for fuller list see Falcke (1955) Stage Operas Schwanenweiss (3, Weismann, after A. Strindberg), op.75, 1919–20, Duisburg, 1923 Ein Traumspiel (3, Weismann, after Strindberg)

Article

John Horton and Nils Grinde

beginning of 1872 and performed in May at the Christiania Theatre. Composer and author then began to make plans for an opera on a Norwegian subject. In the meantime Grieg continued to give a considerable part of his time and energies to conducting and concert-giving, and in the autumn of 1871 he helped found the Christiania Music Society for the promotion of orchestral music. On 10 July 1873 Bjørnson sent him the first three scenes of an opera text, Olav Trygvason , on which he set to work at once, requesting Bjørnson to let him have the remainder of the text

Article

Giordano Montecchi

approach, set apart from the American Third Stream, he made manifest a political commitment to working-class and student left-wing movements after 1968 . Gaslini’s most important works include the suite Nuovi sentimenti , with Don Cherry, Gato Barbieri and Steve Lacy, and the jazz opera Colloquio con Malcolm X . He has frequently collaborated with Max Roach, Antony Braxton and, latterly, the Italian Instabile Orchestra. Gaslini has written a number of film scores, including that to Antonioni’s La notte , and incidental music. He has also been important as a teacher

Article

Peter Kemp

repertory by including the sometimes ‘futuristic’ music of contemporary operatic composers, especially that of Richard Wagner. As early as March 1853 , Johann Strauss (ii) had been the first in Vienna to feature extracts from Wagner’s operas in his concerts, presenting music from Tannhäuser and Lohengrin , long before the operas’ respective Viennese premières. Now Josef made a point of introducing extracts from Tristan und Isolde , Das Rheingold and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg , even before the works’ world premières. Wagner himself attended a concert of

Article

John Bergsagel

performance of all his chamber music and generously put at his disposal his Paris residence when Svendsen moved there in the autumn. In Paris Svendsen found the musical environment he had been missing. He heard a great deal of new music, renewed old acquaintances and made new ones, including Mme Viardot. Pasdeloup included two of his Norwegian Rhapsodies in his concerts and allowed Svendsen to conduct his own Second Symphony. He conducted two concerts in Angers which were so successful that he was offered a post there. But two sets of songs, nine in all, was the apparent

Article

Stuart Campbell

resignation Balakirev was appointed director on 28 January/ 9 February 1868 , retaining the post until the spring of 1874 , though latterly only nominally. 2. 1866–72. In 1866 Glinka’s sister Lyudmila Shestakova asked Balakirev to take charge of performances of her brother’s operas in Prague; devoted as he was to Glinka, Balakirev accepted. After delays caused by the Austro-Prussian War, he conducted Ruslan and Lyudmila there on 4/16, 5/17 and 7/ 19 February 1867 and A Life for the Tsar on 10/22 February. Balakirev was never easy to get on with if disagreement

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

A conservative composer, he was strongly influenced by Brahms’s harmony and orchestration. He wrote neither operas nor oratorios and seems to have been at his best in chamber music (e.g. the String Quartet in E minor and the Piano Quintet in B minor; the latter occupies a central place in his output). His main venture as a composer of programme music was the Symphony no.3 in C minor, subtitled ‘Mirjam’ ( 1888 ). In his composition, Gernsheim aimed above all for unity, believing that each bar should be both essential and inevitable in its place in the conception of

Article

John C.G. Waterhouse and Virgilio Bernardoni

fiaba, prol., 3, C.V. Lodovici, after C. Gozzi), op.50, 1928–31, Rome, Opera, 17 March 1932 La favola d’Orfeo (chbr op, 1, C. Pavolini, after A. Poliziano), op.51, 1932, Venice, Goldoni, 6 Sept 1932 Il deserto tentato (mistero, 1, Pavolini), op.60, 1936–7, Florence, Comunale, 19 May 1937 La camera dei disegni (Balletto per Fulvia) (ballet), op.64, Rome, Arti, 28 Nov 1940 [partly after 11 pezzi infantili, op.35, pf] La rosa del sogno (ballet, 1), op.66, Rome, Opera, 16 March 1943 [partly after Paganiniana, op.65, orch] Other

Article

Peter Kemp

avoided it whenever possible, he made important appearances in Paris (most significantly in 1867 when, inter alia , he performed at the Austrian Embassy Ball, an event which helped popularize An der schönen, blauen Donau outside Vienna), London (conducting at all 63 promenade concerts at the Royal Italian Opera House in 1867, recollected by his waltz Erinnerung an Covent-Garden op.329, Boston (in 1872 playing at the World’s Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival, followed by appearances in New York) and Berlin (conducting a series of concerts at the newly-opened

Article

Michael Kunkel and Jürg Stenzl

work rests on the craftsmanlike foundation laid by the rigorous tuition he received from Veress, an exiled pupil of Bartók, which has left its mark on all his compositions: central themes of Veress’s teaching such as canonic techniques and questions of formal symmetry have exercised him in varying contexts. The contrapuntal emphasis in these studies was valuably supplemented by Boulez, who sensitized Holliger above all to harmonic considerations. After the study Schwarzgewobene Trauer ( 1961–2 ), based on a note row from Boulez’s Third Piano Sonata, and the Sequenzen

Article

Peter Kemp

, with the recruitment of the three Scholl brothers, Joseph, Karl and Simon, the quartet grew to a septet, consisting of first and second violins, viola or 3rd violin, guitar, cello or bass, flute and clarinet. Strauss’s arrangement (in a copyist’s hand) of the overture to Auber’s opera, La neige, ou Le nouvel éginard ( 1823 ) dates from April 1824, and is one of his oldest extant works. From 1825 it is likely that ensemble was enlarged further, gradually achieving an orchestra size of 11–12 players. From autumn 1824 to probably spring 1825, Strauss was a conscript

Article

Benet Casablancas i Domingo

Andalusian tradition ( Jondo , Flamenco and Hommage à Carmen Amaya ), or introducing highly stylised material of indigenous origin which serves as the basis and starting point of the composition (Bassoon Concerto). This tendency reaches its peak in one of his most important works, the opera Gaudí , a synthesis of his output. While the orchestration obviously predominates in great sound paintings such as Ab origine , Tzákol , Trama and Gaudí , his chamber works attain the highest degree of purification and mastery in pieces such as the Pàssim-trio , Barcelona 216