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Article

Paul R. Laird and David Schiff

Bernstein, Leonard [ Louis ] ( b Lawrence, MA , Aug 25, 1918 ; d New York, NY , Oct 14, 1990 ). American conductor and composer . His accomplishments as a conductor, composer of musical theater and concert works, and musical educator through television mark Bernstein as an unusually versatile figure. Among his most lasting contributions are his tenure as music director of the New York Philharmonic and the score to the Broadway musical West Side Story . 1. Early life. Bernstein’s parents, Samuel Bernstein and Jennie

Article

Philip Yampolsky, Dr Sumarsam, Lisa Gold, Tilman Seebass, Benjamin Brinner, Michael Crawford, Simon Cook, Matthew Isaac Cohen, Marc Perlman, Virginia Gorlinski, Margaret J. Kartomi, Christopher Basile, R. Anderson Sutton and Franki Raden

(androgynous) for both male and female dance styles; however, within a single dance there are usually sections of all three types. The vocabulary of dance movements is highly stylized and codified to suit character types. Important movements include agem , the basic stance that defines character, mungkah lawang , opening of the curtain, and seledet , a quick eye movement from side to side, synchronized with gongs. Hand gestures ( mudra ) are used, perhaps a retention from Indian dance, but with no particular meaning. The gambuh dance-drama genre enacts the Panji Malat

Article

Elise Kirk

(Hildegard of Bingen), SATB, fl, ob, hn, 2 tpt, trbn, tuba, timp, perc, org, 1996 Chamber and solo instrumental Colors, brass qnt, 1974 Duo, cl, pf, 1974 Exploration, ens, 1974 Landmark Fanfare, brass qnt, 1978 Music for Contrasts, str qt, 1980 Dance, pf, 1986 Partita, vn, pf, 1986 Str Qt no.2, 1987 American Vignettes, vc, pf, 1988 Fantasy in 3 Parts, fl, gui, 1989 7 Miniatures, str trio, 1990 Quartessence, str qt, 1990 Conc., brass qnt, 1991 Music of the Night, pf trio, 1992 Preludes, pf, 1994 Meditations on the Spirit, org, 1995 Toccata, org, 1996

Article

Costume  

Sidney Jackson Jowers

y dress. Baroque operas included many balletic interludes and divertissements to amuse the audience and give the singers a rest. Menestrier recommends that in each scene the dancers should be dressed alike, and that they should not appear twice in the same costume. He suggests successive entrées of soldiers, shepherds, gods from ancient legend, thieves, animals, genii, American Indians, Persians and Moors. The expense of such a quantity of costumes could not be borne by individual performers, so managements paid for opera-ballet clothing (unlike the system in French

Article

Gerard Béhague and Irma Ruiz

it has recently acquired a certain snob value among middle and upper classes. The bailanta , a dance and also the term used for the Buenos Aires dance halls where migrants from the provinces met to dance, went through a similar process to the cuarteto . It is one of the most significant phenomena of the record industry in terms of sales. At its highpoint, during the period 1989–92 , approximately 200 groups dedicated themselves to playing this type of Latin American ‘tropical music’. The preferred genres were the cumbia (Colombia), the guaracha (Cuba), the

Article

J. Peter Burkholder

19th-century American popular songs and hymns are related, as if a songwriter began with a fragment of a familiar tune and extended it. Composers in the classical tradition have frequently adapted folksongs and other national melodies, using borrowing to give their music a national, regional, or ethnic flavor, as in Louis Moreau Gottschalk’s piano pieces on melodies from Spain, the United States, and Latin America. In the early 1890s, Dvorˇák urged American composers to look toward African American spirituals, American Indian music, or Anglo-American folk music as

Article

Marcello Piras

married again. In 1923 the Syncopators made it to New York; re-christened “The Washingtonians,” they landed a four-year job in floor shows with singers and dancers at the Hollywood Inn, later Club Kentucky. Their earliest records ( 1924 ) showcase bubber Miley (cornet), a major influence on Ellington, alongside clumsy, immature arrangements. A musician, artist, and lyricist, Ellington felt drawn to musical theater, and resorted to studying composition and orchestration with Cook and Vodery. His first show was Chocolate Kiddies ( 1925 ). Meanwhile, his Club Kentucky

Article

Ecuador  

Gerard Béhague and John M. Schechter

music culture of Afro-Americans of the Pacific littoral of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, as well as coastal sectors of Nariño, Cauca and Valle departments, Colombia, Whitten ( 1968 ) isolates five musical contexts: currulao (marimba dance), chigualo (child's wake), alavado and novenario (wake and post-burial rituals for a deceased adult), the arrullo for a saint and the dance hall. Danced in a marimba house, the currulao is a baile de respeto (dance of respect), taking place within a tense atmosphere in which, according to some, dancers are not supposed to touch

Article

occasional traditional Indian instrument (the bānsuri (flute), ḍholak and tablā drums). Indian classical music per se was introduced to the island in 1966 by artist H.S. Adesh, and tens of students have since studied sitār , tablā and Hindustani classical vocal music. (v) Chutney. The popular hot songs of the 1990s youth culture are Chutney , also known as Indian soca (soul plus calypso); they draw on the old local classical repertory and traditional instruments but with a disco beat and accompany drinking and dancing in a nightclub setting

Article

Paul Attinello

musics and First World electronic experimentation. The dense, muted timbres, complex repetitive rhythms and sophisticated heterophony of his output after 1977 have been influential to musicians working in genres that cross between popular and art styles. His compositions include dance scores for Merce Cunningham, MOMIX, Dai Rakuda Kan and Alvin Ailey, and collaborations with Brian Eno, Peter Gabriel, Talking Heads, David Sylvian and the West African ensemble Farafina; his stage works often involve gently political attitudes. The Jon Hassell Concert Group has performed

Article

Richard Kassel

insts, 1949–50 rev. as Ring Around the Moon The Wooden Bird (incid. music, W. Leach), 1v, insts, 1950, collab. B. Johnston; Charlottesville, VA, 10 Jan 1951 Plectra and Percussion Dances Castor and Pollux, a Dance for the Twin Rhythms of Gemini, 1952, rev. 1968 Ring Around the Moon, a Dance Fantasm for Here and Now (Partch), 1952–3 Even Wild Horses, Dance Music for an Absent Drama (A. Rimbaud: A Season in Hell ), vv, large ens of orig. insts, 1949–52 Berkeley, CA, 19 Nov 1953 King Oedipus (1, after W.B. Yeats, after Sophocles), 10 solo vv, chorus, large

Article

Elizabeth Wood

revised by Philip Brett and Nadine Hubbs

Black Imprint on American Dance Music,” Out in Culture: Gay, Lesbian, and Queer Essays on Popular Culture , ed. C.K. Creekmur and A. Doty (Durham, 1995), 437–46 D. Hajdu : Lush Life: a Biography of Billy Strayhorn (New York, 1996) S. Wolf : “The Queer Pleasures of Mary Martin and Broadway: The Sound of Music as a Lesbian Musical,” Modern Drama , 39/1 (1996), 51–63 “‘Never-Gonna-Be-a-Man/Catch-Me-If-You-Can/I-Won’t-Grow-Up’: A Lesbian Account of Mary Martin as Peter Pan,” Theatre Journal , 49/4 (1997), 493–509 J. Bellman : “Indian Resonances in the

Article

Archives of Traditional Music, Folklore Institute, Indiana U. (Boston, 1975) C. J. Frisbie : Music and Dance Research of Southwestern United States Indians (Detroit, 1977) [lists recordings] Sibley Music Library Catalog of Sound Recordings , ed. Eastman School (Boston, 1977) G. Koch : Directory of Member Archives (London, 1978, 2/1982) [International Association of Sound Archives] E. A. Davis : Index to the New World Recorded Anthology of American Music (New York, 1981) Dictionary Catalog of the Rodgers and Hammerstein Archives of Recorded Sound (Boston

Article

James Pritchett, Laura Kuhn and Charles Hiroshi Garrett

(Cummings), 1v, 2 perc, 1942 [for dance by Erdman] Totem Ancestor, prep pf, 1942 [for dance by Cunningham] And the Earth shall Bear Again, prep pf, 1942 [for dance by V. Bettis] The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs (J. Joyce), 1v, closed pf, 1942 Primitive, prep pf, 1942 [for dance by W. Williams] In the Name of the Holocaust, prep pf, 1942 [for dance by Cunningham] 4 Dances, 1v, prep pf, perc, 1943 Amores, 2 prep pf, 2 perc trios, 1943 Ad Lib, pf, 1943, unpubd [for dance by Cunningham] Our Spring Will Come, prep pf, 1943 [for dance by P. Primus] She is Asleep, 1943:

Article

Hip hop  

Felicia M. Miyakawa

2006 ; Schloss, 2009 ). As part of this resurgence of interest in oral history collection, certain hip hop legends, such as dancer Jorge “Popmaster Fabel” Pabon, are increasingly in demand on the lecture circuit. Some have taught hip-hop-based courses in various university and college settings. A third scholarly trend involves a general revisionist project, challenging early histories of hip hop that tended to center around African American male subjects without revealing more nuanced understandings of hip hop’s early diversity. Such work has sought to critique and

Article

Haiti  

Robert Grenier and Gage Averill

Caribbean, European figure dances played by musicians of African descent evolved into new, hybrid styles, often as accompaniment for couple dances. One of the first of these (appearing soon after the founding of Haiti) was the karabinyè ( carabinier , the army’s artillery division), the direct precursor of the méringue ( see Merengue ). Throughout most of the 19th and 20th centuries, the méringue was a national genre, danced at rural informal parties, at working-class bars and at high-class soirées (especially after anti-American sentiment during the US occupation

Article

Mary Wallace Davidson, D.W. Krummel and James P. Cassaro

also include the papers of Flournoy Miller, author of Shuffle Along ; of his daughter Olivette Miller, known as the first jazz harpist; and of Victoria Spivey, the blues artist and composer. The Delilah Jackson Archive contains materials related to the history of African American dance, theater, and music, particularly from the Harlem vaudeville period. There are also collections of materials relating to Hall Johnson and to the personal life and career of Billie Holiday. In addition, it holds an important collection of Confederate sheet music, and the papers, of

Article

David Nicholls and Joel Sachs

latina, band, 1939 [arr. pf; 579a, lost] 587 ‡Pastoral and Fiddler’s Delight, 1940; cond. L. Stokowski, New York, 26 July 1940 594 American Melting Pot Set for Chbr Orch, 1940: 1 Chorale (Teutonic-American), 2 Air (Afro-American), 3 Satire (Franco-American), 4 Alapna (Oriental-American), 5 Slavic Dance (Slavic-American), 6 Rhumba with added 8th (Latin-American), 7 Square Dance (Celtic-American); cond. F. Petrides, New York, 3 May 1943 595 58 for Percy, band, 1940 [< f :595a] 597 ‡Ancient Desert Drone, 1940; cond. Grainger

Article

Peter Dickinson, H. Wiley Hitchcock and Keith E. Clifton

song (discussed elsewhere in this dictionary) include theater songs, popular songs, ragtime and jazz songs, folksongs, and work songs. 1. c 1750– c 1850. The earliest extant American art songs, signed “F. H.,” are contained (along with some 100 mid-18th-century English songs) in a manuscript copied out by Francis Hopkinson, an amateur musician from Philadelphia. The first of these to appear in the manuscript is “My days have been so wondrous free,” dated 1759 and long regarded as the first American secular song; the others initialed by Hopkinson – “The

Article

Roger Savage, Barry Millington and John Cox

Dressed: Eighteenth Century Acting’, Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America , 58 (1943), 1002–37 B. Brunelli , ed.: P. Metastasio: Tutte le opere (Milan, 1943–54) C. Varese : Saggio sul Metastasio (Florence, 1950) [esp. appx, ‘La regia dal dramma Metastasiano’, 103–12] T. Cole and H. Krich Chinoy eds.: Directing the Play: a Sourcebook of Stagecraft (Indianapolis, in , 1953, 2/1963, as Directors on Directing: a Sourcebook of the Modern Theater, with an Illustrated History of Directing ) [incl. H. Krich Chinoy : ‘The Emergence of