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Article

Anders Lönn

revised by Lennart Hedwall

at the Opera school from 1786 ; he became a member of the Academy in 1786 . After his first published works, the two violin solos ( 1781 ), Zander composed theatre music in which he emulated the style of French opéra comique and German Singspiel, inserting familiar Swedish national tunes. The combination proved quite popular; from 1784 until his death he composed for and served as musical director of Carl Stenborg’s theatre, which under him enjoyed its greatest success. Works all in MS in S-St unless otherwise stated Stage all first

Article

Andrew Lamb

Royalty, Globe, Her Majesty’s and other theatres in London and New York. He wrote numerous parlour pieces for the piano and comic songs, and as a composer of comic operas he was one of the most accomplished contemporaries of Sullivan. Solomon’s melodies are usually in an English ballad or a march style with repeated melodic phrases and simple rhythms. His comic operas, many of which echo Sullivan’s, were all performed in London and include Billee Taylor (Imperial, 30 October 1880 ), Claude Duval (Olympic, 24 August 1881 ), The Vicar of Bray (Globe, 22 July 1882

Article

Hugh Macdonald

army, and the eldest of three brothers, all of whom studied the violin with their father and later at the Paris Conservatoire. The family spent some years in Brest. François-Antoine was in Baillot’s class at the Conservatoire, where he won a premier prix for the violin in 1804 . He is said to have received a pension of 1200 francs from the Empress Josephine. In 1804 he joined the orchestra of the Opéra-Comique, but moved almost at once to that of the Opéra. When Rodolphe Kreutzer was promoted to director of the Opéra in 1817 Habeneck succeeded him as principal

Article

greatest personal successes was with his opera Son na Volge (A Dream on the Volga), based on the same Ostrovsky play as Tchaikovsky’s opera Voyevoda , and produced in Moscow in 1891 . Parts of the opera had been composed under Rimsky-Korsakov’s supervision when Arensky was still a conservatory student. In 1894 Balakirev recommended Arensky as his successor to the directorship of the imperial chapel in St Petersburg, and in 1895 Arensky moved to that city, resigning from his professorship at the Moscow Conservatory. A second opera, Rafaėl ′ (Raphael), composed in

Article

John Beckwith

letters, legal proceedings, shipping lists, and other documents. Central to both works (Anhalt calls them operas, though their performances have not included staging) is the episode of the voyage itself. In both, moreover, religious themes – French Catholic or Church of England – intrude significantly. In the late 1970s and early 80s Anhalt’s work took two new directions. Firstly, his interest in extended vocal techniques (exhibited in Cento , Foci and the two operas) led to a period of research in the works of other composers (especially Berio, Ligeti, Lutosławski

Article

Walter Aaron Clark

and finally conductor at the Teatro Principal. Eventually he confined himself to teaching and composition. Despite their settings, dialogue and costumes, his Catalan zarzuelas evince the influence of Italian opera so pervasive in Spain during that epoch. He was a gifted orchestrator and made effective use of colour to project dramatic situations. Works all zarzuelas; first performed in Barcelona unless otherwise stated La romería de Recasens (2), 1867 L’ultim rey de Magnolia (1, S. Pitarra), Romeo, Dec 1868 Els pescadors de

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

the polonaise gave rise to the sentimental style and character of Polish music before Chopin. Several of Stefani’s children were musicians, including Kazimierz ( 1791–1811 ) and Jan ( 1797–1826 ), violinists in the opera orchestra, Karolina ( 1784–1803 ) and Eleonora ( 1802–31 ), both opera singers, and Józef Stefani . Works Stage all first performed at the National Theatre, Warsaw Miłosć każdemu wiekowi właściwa [Love Becomes Every Age] (ballet), 4 Nov 1785 Król w kraju roakoszy [The King in Cockaigne] (3, F. Zabłocki, after M.-A. Legrand:

Article

Steven Ledbetter

the Metropolitan Opera after half a dozen performances, though G. Schirmer published the work in full score, an unprecedented distinction for an American opera. 3. Instrumental music. Herbert’s instrumental music fell out of favour after his own time, though it has begun to reappear in concert and recordings. The one substantial exception was the Second Cello Concerto, in E minor, first performed by the composer with the New York PO under Anton Seidl in 1894 . The work is Lisztian in its thorough-going employment of thematic transformation in all three movements

Article

Michal Ben-Zur

Exiles’, 1952 ). His most performed work, Symphonic Suite on Greek Themes ( 1943 ), received the 1951 Engel prize. Works ( selective list ) Operas Nedarim [Vows] (Salomon), 1954–5 David and Goliath (A. Bär), solo vv, chorus, ob, str qt, 1965 Four Times Methuselah: Methuselah Laughs Last (ob, Salomon), 1965–6 Vocal The Tone (cant., A. Nedel), 1933 Adon olam [Lord of All], T, chorus, org, 1949 Kibbutz ha’galuyot [Gathering of Exiles] (cant., Bible), 1952 Le’ma’an Yerushalayim [For the Sake of Jerusalem] (cant., Bible), 1958 Halo

Article

Ned Quist

revised by Linda L. Giedl

three years of intensive work, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (Die italienische Sonate für mehrere Instrumente im 17ten Jahrhundert, diss., U. of Heidelberg, 1932 ). Later that year he was engaged as a coach and conducting assistant to Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt at the Darmstadt Opera. Beaten with guns by Adolf Hitler’s Stormtroopers in early 1933 , Schlossberg left Germany for Paris. Taking the name Jean Berger in 1934 , he became a sought-after concert accompanist and vocal coach, founded and conducted a small chorus (Les Compagnons de la Marjolaine) and a

Article

Edward Greenfield

well as of Barber’s Knoxville: Summer of 1915 , but generally Previn’s unashamedly eclectic idiom owed more to Walton and Britten than to American models. September 1998 brought a landmark in his composing career, with the première in San Francisco of his biggest work to date, the opera A Streetcar Named Desire , based on Tennessee Williams’s play with a libretto by Philip Littell. A recording of the work was issued the following year. Following the pattern set by Bernstein, Previn throughout his career defied the cult of specialization predominant in the modern world

Article

Jerrold Northrop Moore

few recordings he made. Serious and deeply reflective by nature, he tried all his life to focus his powers not only on playing and conducting but also on writing and composing. He wrote a psychological study of Liszt and many reminiscences, later collected by his pupil Theodore Bullock under the title Life and Liszt (New York, 1961 ). Besides editing the works of Chopin, Friedheim was a dedicated composer, though few of his works were published and many of the manuscripts are lost. His operas include The Last Days of Pompeii , not performed, Alexander and Thaïs

Article

Albert Mell

revised by Matthias Wiegandt

embrace nearly all genres, though few are of lasting interest. Notable are some of his stage works, the Third Symphony op.31, the Oboe Concerto op.33, some overtures and piano pieces, in particular the Piano Sonata op.17, the Flute Sonata op.42 and some of his songs. In matters of form as well as instrumentation Rietz followed Mendelssohn, and he remained unaffected by the orchestral and musico-dramatic innovations of the school of Wagner and Liszt. In his last years Rietz was again active as an editor. He prepared the scores of a number of Mozart operas, which were later

Article

Giselher Schubert

some of the best conductors of the day, among them Willem Mengelberg, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Fritz Busch and Hermann Scherchen, men who would later champion his compositions. The principal conductor, Ludwig Rottenberg, conducted the German premières of operas by Debussy, Dukas and Bartók and promoted Schreker’s operas above all. (Hindemith married his youngest daughter, Gertrud, in 1924 .) In 1915 Hindemith became the second violinist in Rebner’s string quartet. He also appeared as a violin soloist playing concertos by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Mendelssohn. In 1923

Article

Cliff Eisen

in popularity and appeal. In the late 1980s Piazzolla’s works began to be taken up by classical performers, in particular the Kronos Quartet, who commissioned Five Tango Sensations ( 1989 ). In all he composed about 750 works, including film scores for Tangos: the Exile of Gardel ( 1985 ) and Sur ( 1987 ). Shortly before his death, he was commissioned to write an opera on the life of Gardel. Bibliography B. Matamoro : ‘Tango: Piazzolla, la vanguardia y después’, Crisis , 1/7 (1973), 21–3 A. Piazzolla : Astor Piazzolla: a manera de

Article

conduct The Queen of Spades at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg in 1912 , described it as ‘astonishingly fresh. All kinds of clichés were erased, and the opera came across to the listener in a new, lively way, as if it had just been “washed”.’ At Mamontov’s theatre Rachmaninoff also formed a close friendship with Chaliapin (who sang with the company), and during a summer holiday in 1898 they made intensive studies together of the operas of Rimsky-Korsakov and Musorgsky, particularly Boris Godunov . Novosti (London)

Article

Jeremy Dibble and Jennifer Spencer

emotional note, as in his Ode to the Passions ( 1898 ). This tendency is also largely true of his contribution to opera. The diminutive canvas of his ‘comedietta’ One Too Many ( 1874 ) has a charm and subtlety that befits Cowen's natural sense of wit. His attempts at serious opera, on the other hand, were much less happy. His one verismo opera, Signa ( 1892 ), intended to follow the production of Sullivan's Ivanhoe at D'Oyly Carte's new Royal English Opera House, was performed twice at the Teatro Dal Verme, Milan, in November 1893 (reduced from four acts to three)

Article

Oldřich Pukl

became a leading light in the musical life of Slovakia. He was head of opera at the newly established Slovak National Theatre, director of the Bratislava radio station and a reader at both the university and the music academy. He also conducted concerts for the Cultural Union for Slovakia. His work at the National Theatre included giving the premières of Bella’s Wieland der Schmied ( 1926 ) and Figuš’s Detvan ( 1928 ). In 1930 he committed suicide by jumping from an upper window of the Zagreb Opera House. As a composer Nedbal achieved world renown for his operettas

Article

Joachim E. Berendt

revised by Wolfram Knauer

Mangelsdorff (with whom he also occasionally performed in the German All Stars), and, from 1986 , collaborated with the songwriter Konstantin Wecker. In his early work Dauner’s piano playing showed traces of Bill Evans (ii) and Paul Bley, but he soon developed an individual virtuoso style combining intense free improvisation with lyrical and meditative passages. His compositions in the mid- to late 1960s made use of jazz and contemporary art music, and often incorporated elements of theatre, opera, and dance; Free Action (originally performed at the Berliner Jazztage

Article

I.M. Yampol′sky

revised by Richard Wigmore

h Gauk ’s conducting class at the Moscow Conservatory. He began his conducting career with All-Union Radio in 1953 (while still a student at the conservatory), and from 1955 was an assistant and then a conductor at the Bol′shoy Theatre; later he was principal conductor ( 1962–4 ). The theatre and opera were in his blood from childhood: his father had been a soloist at the Bol′shoy and his mother an artist in a mime ensemble. He conducted many of Rimsky-Korsakov’s operas, Dargomïzhsky’s Rusalka , Borodin’s Prince Igor and Tchaikovsky’s The Queen of Spades ;