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Article

Alexander L. Ringer

choice (Saul Bellow’s Henderson, the Rain King ), appears to persist at times. Fortunately, some of its finest musical moments have been recaptured in an identically titled chamber work as well as in the separately published solo piece Flutings for Paula ( 1977 ). Works Opera Lily (3, Kirchner, after S. Bellow: Henderson, the Rain King ), 1973–6 New York, 14 April 1977, arr. S, tape, chbr ens, 1973 Orchestral Piece, pf, orch, 1946, unpubd Sinfonia, 1951 Pf Conc. no.1, 1953 Toccata, str, wind, perc, 1955 Conc., vn, vc, 10 wind, perc, 1960 Pf Conc

Article

Marcello Piras

still largely awaits decipherment. Works ( * Collaborative works with Billy Strayhorn. For the nature and extent of such collaboration, see van de Leur, 2002. ) theatrical Operas Boola (Ellington, inc.), 1939 Shout up a Morning, musical drama (P. Farrow, unproduced), 1970 Queenie Pie, street opera (Ellington, inc., compl. M. Ellington, M. Peress), Philadelphia, 1986 Musical comedies Harlem is Heaven (unproduced), 1937 H.M.S. Times Square (unproduced), 1943–5

Article

received no less than 100 performances; by the end of the century, with the exception of Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar , it had outstripped in popularity all other operas, including those of Meyerbeer to which it is partially indebted. Tchaikovsky considered that, in spite of ‘much padding’, Demon contained ‘lovely things’, and it certainly influenced his opera Yevgeny Onegin , which, like Demon is an opera in ‘Three Acts, Seven Scenes’. The delicate style of the Russian chamber romance which epitomizes the portrayal of Rubinstein’s Tamara is echoed in Tchaikovsky’s

Article

Noel Malcolm

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

intervals, and note patterns are constantly adapted and recombined. As Enescu worked on his opera Oedipe during the 1920s, this method lent itself naturally to the elaboration of leitmotifs: one modern study (by Octavian Cosma) has identified 21 such motifs in the work, although their functioning is so germinal and cellular that it is possible for listeners to experience the whole work without being aware of the presence of leitmotifs at all. Another feature of the opera is the minutely detailed orchestration, which frequently makes use of solo instruments within

Article

Jennifer Doctor, Judith LeGrove, Paul Banks, Heather Wiebe and Philip Brett

E1949, p.278), the opera met with success from the moment of its first performance at Sadler’s Wells Theatre, London, on 7 June 1945 ( see Opera ). It was quickly taken up by other companies in Europe and the USA, and in due course became one of the rare 20th-century operas to enter the repertory. Britten’s actual return to England had been anticlimactic. Although the tribunal he faced, as a conscientious objector, called him up for non-combatant duties, he was allowed on appeal to go free. This was also true of Pears. Their giving recitals all over the country

Article

Philip L. Scowcroft

flute in orchestras in Harrogate, then at Bournemouth under Dan Godfrey. He subsequently conducted at various London theatres (among them the Adelphi, Terry's, Daly's and Drury Lane), for over 30 years. He toured the USA with Messager's Véronique and recorded excerpts from the Savoy operas. He also composed musicals of his own, but these have survived less well than the splendidly scored orchestral works produced for Boosey & Hawkes, both original pieces and arrangements, for whom he was a staff composer. His compositions include suites and separate movements, many

Article

Bálint Vázsonyi

this field are all of a high standard. The rest of his output is variable, but he composed excellent works in almost every genre. They show an unerring mastery of form and instrumentation, fluency, and a rich but utterly natural sense of harmony, which enabled him to make unbridled chromatic excursions without ever losing the tonal centre. He succeeded in blending the ‘Brahmsian’ preservation of classical form with the Lisztian concept of motivic strands binding together a large-scale work. His best opera, Der Tenor , is one of the few true comic operas written in the

Article

Kevin O’Brien

music in general and of language in particular which make for a work list that is consistent yet original. His archives are housed at the performance division of the Library of Congress. The majority of his scores are held at the American Composers Alliance. Works Operas The Decorator (F. Getlein, D. Getlein), 5 vv, chbr orch, 1959 The Birthday of the Infanta (M. Ewald after O. Wilde), 8 vv, chorus, orch, 1993 Choral Dante’s Praises to the Virgin Mother, 1952 Mass #3, 1952

Article

Ursel Schlicht

recorded her first work for large ensemble, A Genuine Tong Funeral (RCA). Two years later Charlie Haden commissioned her to arrange music for his album Liberation Music Orchestra ( 1969 , Imp.), and she subsequently arranged for all of the group’s future albums. The first performance of her best-known work, the genre-bending avant-garde jazz opera Escalator over the Hill ( 1971 , with lyrics by Paul Haines), featured a huge cast that included Jack Bruce, Linda Ronstadt, Don Cherry, and John McLaughlin. In 1964 Bley helped to organize the Jazz Composer’s Guild. The

Article

Carmen Ottner

his work, namely the Hungarian influence, which remains prominent even in his penultimate composition, the Quintet in A major of 1938 . He absorbed all the important elements of the Hungarian idiom to the point that it became a constant part of his personal style. It is also evident in the first, second and fourth symphonies, in the quintets, in the Variationen über ein Husarenlied and most notably in his first opera Notre Dame , where it is used to characterize the gypsy Esmeralda: Karl Goldmark described the famous Intermezzo as ‘the most beautiful of gypsy music’

Article

Keith Moore

incorporating a rock group and requiring three conductors. From 1976 he focussed on assimilating the entire American musical tradition, including hymn tunes, marches and ragtime, and with Americana, or, A New Tale of the Genii he began his most ambitious project yet: a cycle of three operas, each encompassing a century of America’s musical heritage. Later works such as Arabesques Redux and The Blue Box use modes taken from jazz and non-Western traditional musics. Works ( selective list ) Dramatic Pyramus and Thisbe (chbr

Article

Gilbert Chase

revised by David Wright and Lars Helgert

and eclectic, represented by such works as the Symphony in G, the early concertos, various choral works, and the orchestral Symphony of Chorales based on chorales by Bach. Also present is an element of American populism, as in the setting of Sandburg’s The Prairie and the comic opera The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County on the story by Mark Twain. The transitional phase began in 1956 , when Foss decided to experiment with ensemble improvisation, primarily for the benefit of his students at UCLA. A year later he founded the Improvisation Chamber Ensemble and

Article

Gerald R. Benjamin

composers and thought that the development of the ‘13th sound’ revolution would in itself be sufficient to give universal renown to Mexico. Out of it would result a new order, less complex though providing for complexity, less constrained though providing for restraint. Works Operas Without microtones La princesse Oïna (Ossian) (1, H. Albert), 1902 México en 1810 (Matilde) (4, L. Viramontes), 1909 Xulitl (3, C. d’Erzel), 1921, rev. 1947 Orchestral With microtones Sym. no.1 ‘Colombia’, c 1926 Serenata, ¼-tone vc, orch, 1926 Sym. no

Article

Torben Schousboe

in 1827 . From 1829 to 1831 he made a study tour of Germany, Paris and Italy, having already made a name as a composer of string quartets and overtures. When Schall retired in 1834 , Frøhlich was one of three alternating conductors chosen to succeed him; later he conducted all the opera performances. He was a director of the Musikforening from its founding in 1836 until 1841 and chairman in 1836–7 . He went on leave to Italy in 1838 to recover from a street accident and a stroke. On his return he wrote the music for some of Bournonville’s ballets, but ill-health

Article

Martin Eastick

45; 2 Etudes de Concert, op.48 Suite, G, op.50 (1892) Frühling, 5 Stücke, op.57 (1896) [8] Tristesses et Sourires, op.58 (1896) 3 Mazurkas, op.60 (1898) 4 Morceaux, op.68 (1902) Valse de concert, F, op.69 (1902) 15 Etudes de virtuosité, ‘Per aspera’, op.72 (1903) Chanson bohème de l'opéra ‘Carmen’ de G. Bizet, transcription de concert (1906) 10 Pièces mignonnes, op.77 (1907) Grande valse de concert, G♭, op.88 (1912) [5] Tanzmomente, op.89 (1912) Isolden's Tod, Schluss-Szene aus Tristan und Isolde von Richard Wagner, paraphrase (1914) 6 Morceaux, op.93 (1916)

Article

3. Return to Bonn. In the spring of 1839 she returned to Bonn to finalize her divorce, intending initially to return to Berlin. As a polished performer and experienced teacher, Johanna attracted many students. She re-established the Gesangverein , whose performances of operas, operettas, and oratorios, which she directed, made an important contribution to concert life in Bonn. Together with the poet, Protestant theologian, and art historian Gottfried Kinkel, she co-founded the literary circle Der Maikäferbund . The intellectual exchange with the groups’

Article

Reinhold Sietz

concertos avoid grand soloistic mannerisms, and his own style of playing, with hands still and fingers curved, reflected his belief in classical practice. Of his three symphonies, the first employs small forces, while the second is a cyclically organized work on a grand scale. His operas, despite their Wagnerian trappings, were not successful; his better-known musical fairy tales, based in part on his own texts (written under the name Heinrich Carsten), were composed in a tasteful folk-style. Gifted in many fields, he was also a talented painter and poet. His lucidly

Article

Giorgos Sakallieros

Air Force in the Libya front. In 1944 he won the first prize in the Eistedfodd Festival in Cairo, both in piano performance and composition. He conducted his first major symphonic work, Œdipe-roi , at the Cairo Opera in 1945 . In 1947–8 he studied piano and composition at the Schola Cantorum, Paris, graduating with honours. He toured extensively all over the world either as recitalist or as accompanist for renowned soloists like Jacques Thibaud, Christian Ferras, and Henryk Szeryng. With French violinist Colette Frantz he founded and ran a music school and a chamber