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Article

Andrea Musk

the inhabitants, now living under the sea, lose all knowledge of their language apart from the sound ‘o’. The text in its entirety is written in an Italian macaronic based upon their only remembered sound. Works texts by composer unless otherwise stated Le phénix ou Ramage et plumage (opera buffa), 1957 Lettres perdues ou La correspondance des gens du monde (opera radiophonico-épistolaire), 1960 La dictée ou Les barbares sont dans la classe (monodrame lyrique), 1961 Le couer révélateur ou Les voliges (opéra de chambre, P. Soupault, after E.A. Poe), 1961

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Graham Dixon and Richard Taruskin

minority. Viennese oratorios belonging to the category of Jesuit drama increasingly developed in the direction of opera: the best-known example, Pia et fortis mulier ( 1677 ) by J. K. Kerll, includes all the elements of contemporary Venetian opera, as well as spoken sections. (For a fuller discussion, see Jesuit drama .) A further use of operatic procedures in a sacred context in Vienna is seen in the Sepolcro (opera) . The Jesuits were quick to see opera as an educational tool, and the Barberini family in Rome were only slightly slower in realizing its potential

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Peter G. Davis and Dennis K. McIntire

He first sang at the Opéra a month later, as Athanaël in Thaïs , and remained a principal baritone of that company as well as singing at the Opéra-Comique. At Paris his roles included Wagner’s Dutchman, Telramund and Gunther, much Verdi, Thomas’ Hamlet and Rossini’s Figaro. Singher settled in the USA and made his Metropolitan début in 1943 as Dapertutto in Les contes d’Hoffmann . He continued as a member of the Metropolitan until 1959 , singing Pelléas, Count Almaviva and Figaro in Figaro , all four baritone roles in Hoffmann , Lescaut in Manon and Mercutio

Article

Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

was in England to sign each year for the livery payment due to him on 30 November. On 28 October 1704 the Diverting Post reported that two operas, one of them by Clayton, were being prepared for the opening of John Vanbrugh’s new playhouse in the Haymarket. However, Clayton’s opera, Arsinoe, Queen of Cyprus , was put on by Christopher Rich’s company at Drury Lane on 16 January 1705 . It was the first all-sung opera in the Italian style to be performed on the English stage and was a considerable success for two seasons. The libretto by Stanzani had originally

Article

other means of satisfying her. In 1729 Handel engaged Strada for London, where she made her début as Adelaida in Lotario and was the leading soprano in all his operas and oratorios until 1737 . She sang more major Handel parts than any other singer, appearing in at least 24 operas, the opera-ballet Terpsicore and many other works, and was the only member of his company who did not go over to the Opera of the Nobility in 1733 . Handel composed many roles for her: Adelaida in Lotario ( 1729 ), Partenope ( 1730 ), Cleofide in Poro ( 1731 ), Fulvia in Ezio

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

tsar’s royal chapel, director of the opera and teacher of music theory and head of singing classes at the school of drama. In 1841 , after a visit to Italy, he settled in Paris. His other compositions were mainly sacred vocal and chamber works. He also wrote a two-volume textbook, Szkoła śpiewu konserwatorium muzycznego w Warszawie (‘School of Singing of the Music Conservatory in Warsaw’). Works Operas all operas performed Milan, Scala, unless otherwise stated La testa di bronzo, ossia La campana solitaria (opera comica, 2, F. Romani), 3 Sept 1816

Article

James L. Jackman

probably often away from Naples. According to Gervasoni and the Biografia he composed four serious operas and three comic ones; oddly, except for Nitteti , no production records have been located for these works, although Florimo said that La vendemmia was his first opera, written for Naples, and Villarosa reported that Il matrimonio per fanatismo was greatly applauded in Rome. In 1790 Parenti went to Paris, where, according to Fétis, he was first employed by the Opéra-Comique to add pieces to a revival of Gluck’s La rencontre imprévue on 1 May. This was given

Article

Matteo Sansone

Ferrari's musical works adhere to the conventions of the mid-19th century. Works Operas all librettos by Ferrari Ugo (dramma lirico, 4), Milan, Teatro di S Radegonda, 5 July 1857 Sofia (dramma lirico, 3), Lodi, Teatro Sociale, March 1866 rev. as Callista Eleonora d’Arborea (dramma lirico, 4), Cagliari, Teatro Civico, March 1871 Other works Requiem Mass (Turin, 1868) c 40 other works, incl. Ave Maria; drawing-room songs; 12 fronde felsinee, pf; patriotic

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Howard Mayer Brown, Ellen Rosand, Reinhard Strohm, Michel Noiray, Roger Parker, Arnold Whittall, Roger Savage and Barry Millington

some or all of their parts. Numerous sub-genres, such as opera seria , opera buffa , tragédie en musique and the like, have grown up in the history of opera (information about these sub-genres will be found in separate entries). Some of the sub-genres mix spoken and sung drama in conventional ways. Thus, in operetta, Singspiel, opéra comique and musical comedy the dialogue is normally spoken and musical numbers interrupt the action from time to time. The history of opera is inextricably intertwined with the history of spoken drama. Moreover, since all operatic

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Richard Langham Smith

But Guillaume, in love with Hélène, gives her some. Véronique recalls an old legend telling of a cathedral filled with gold: when someone finds it, all the gold in the world will vanish. The centrepiece of the opera, ‘La légende de l’or’, is a ballet. Two groups of dancers try in vain to take a golden image and having failed, they fight. Suddenly Véronique enters and in a clap of thunder the vision disappears. The opera returns to the factory where a new machine has been installed, but a shepherd warns Gaspard that armed villagers are coming to close it. An avalanche

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Peter G. Davis

significant opera appearances were with the New England Opera Theater in Boston as Lisa in The Queen of Spades and Lady Billows in Britten’s Albert Herring , followed in 1953 by a début with the New York City Opera in von Einem’s Der Prozess . Her extensive and varied roles at the City Opera over the next ten years included all the major Mozart heroines, Violetta, Salome, Walton’s Cressida, and Susannah in Carlisle Floyd’s opera, a role she created ( 1955 , Talahassee). Engagements in Vienna, Buenos Aires, Frankfurt and with the Metropolitan Opera (début 1961

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Karen M. Bryan

Worsham, Estelle Clough, Desseria Plato, and Mary Terrell. The longevity of the company was due, in part, to Drury’s practical approach to the business of opera. While he relied on a core of soloists, he did not maintain a continuous roster, instead hiring singers “as needed” and eliminating the need for an expensive payroll. All of the chorus members and most soloists were African American but Drury would, at times, hire white soloists and he relied primarily on white orchestras. Bibliography E. Southern : The Music of Black Americans (New York

Article

Elizabeth Forbes

on BMB E. Fitzball : Thirty-Five Years of a Dramatic Author's Life (London, 1859) C.L. Kenney : A Memoir of Michael William Balfe (London, 1875/ R ) W.A. Barrett : Balfe: his Life and Work (London, 1882) E.W. White : The Rise of English Opera (London, 1951/ R ) B. Carr : ‘The First All-Sung English 19th-Century Opera’, MT , 115 (1974), 125–6

Article

Roger Pines

These performances resulted in Glyndebourne adopting them in October 1984 for their Touring Opera productions of Così fan tutte and Le nozze di Figaro and later for their festival staging of Kát’a Kabanová . Covent Gardenhas used surtitles regularly since January 1986 when they were introduced in a new production of Jenůfa ;all performances of operas in a foreign language are now surtitled there, and they have been used to accompany Birtwistle’s English-language opera, Gawain . In 1986 , the German producer Michael Hampe took them to the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino

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Andrew Lamb

Wedding’ ) Opéra comique in one act by Victor Massé ; to a libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré ; Paris, Opéra-Comique (Salle Favart), 4 February 1853 . Jean (baritone) is due to marry his neighbour Jeannette (soprano) but gets cold feet, preferring to go out drinking with his male friends. Jeannette, though, knows the traditional route to a man’s heart. She repairs his clothes, cleans and tidies his house and makes him a hearty meal. Returning to a home magically transformed, Jean realizes that marriage is for him after all. Caroline Carvalho

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Study in the Esthetics of Opéra-Comique, 1762–1791 (diss., U. of Pennsylvania, 1982) D. Charlton : Grétry and the Growth of Opéra-Comique (Cambridge, 1986) D. Charlton : ‘The Dramaturgy of Grand Opéra : Some Origins’, IMSCR XIV: Bologna 1987 , 853–8 H. Macdonald : ‘The Prose Libretto’, COJ , 1 (1989), 155–66 M. Noiray : ‘Les créations d’opéra à Paris de 1790 à 1794’, Orphée phrygien: les musiques de la Révolution , ed. J.R. Julien and J.C. Klein (Paris, 1989), 193–203 See also from The New Grove Dictionary of Opera : Nicolas Dezède ; Blaise

Article

Ripresa  

Giuseppe Gerbino and Richard Hudson

Ripresa ( It. ) (1) A repeat or repetition in a general sense, including the repetition of an opera or play. (2) The refrain of the 14th-century ballata and the poetic and musical forms that adopted the ballata scheme, such as the lauda ( see Lauda ) and the Frottola, §2 . It is linked, both metrically and musically, to the last section of the strophe, the volta , and was originally repeated after each strophe. 14th-century theorists regarded the ripresa as the element that characterizes the ballata and distinguishes it from other poetic forms. Different

Article

Marita P. McClymonds

Paisiello. This libretto enjoyed more Italian productions than any other of Verazi’s librettos for Germany: Giacomo Rust ( 1776 , Padua), Mysliveček ( 1778 , Naples; 1779 , Pisa), Felice Alessandri ( 1778 , Milan) and Sebastiano Nasolini ( 1792 , Florence). All show extensive revision. Mysliveček’s is an ‘aria’ opera with a duet closing Act 2, and retains only the battle scene in Act 3. Rust’s and Nasolini’s versions retain the sinfonia- introduzione and the concluding action finale. Alessandri and Rust move the ‘death’ trio from Act 3 to the end of Act 2. The Florentine

Article

Michael Davidson

Stichting de Nederlandsche Opera, and the Holland Festival, which fostered national opera as well as presenting foreign companies, was founded two years later. The Zuid-Nederlandse Opera was active in the southern provinces until 1971 . Beginning in 1955 Opera Forum, based in Enschede, toured throughout the country. Maurice Huisman’s intendancy of the Nederlandse Operastichting (founded 1964 ) saw the production of several new works; from 1971 to 1986 the company flourished under the direction of Hans de Roo, giving its productions in all the main cities. During

Article

Julian Rushton

his excitement he embraces Claudine, who decides she prefers him after all. Colin wakes up and sings a recitative and aria which parody serious opera; Eustache takes him for a ghost; Marcel takes Eustache for a burglar. The resulting confusion is resolved and the two couples are united. Quétant preceded the libretto with an essay claiming that opéra comique requires as much skill as tragedy. His blend of sentiment and farce is robustly supported by the composer in his most colourful opéra comique , enlivened by mixed metres, parody, onomatopoeia and inventive