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Article

Greece  

Katy Romanou, Thomas J. Mathiesen, Alexander Lingas, Nikos Maliaras, Achilleus Chaldaiakis, John Plemmenos, Pyrros Bamichas, Kostas Kardamis, Sofia Kontossi, Myrto Economides, Dafni Tragaki, Ioannis Tsagkarakis, Kostas Chardas, Manolis Seiragakis, Sotirios Chianis and Rudolph M. Brandl

as solo organ played by M. Chiotis at the head of a classical orchestra (Kentrikon 1961), combined with a series of works of exceptionally high quality which spread not only throughout mass audiences, but also conquered the most significant places of art music (Epidaurus, Greek Dance Theater). The difference between the two composers is accurately reflected in the release of the song-cycle Epitaph ( 1960 ), a poem by Yiannis Ritsos set to music by Theodorakis. Two different orchestrations appeared: the first by the composer, with the popular music singer G. Bithikotsis

Article

Dorothea Redepenning

regularly appeared in American concert halls. He also performed in Canada in 1919 , and took account of the wish for older music by, for instance, arranging a Buxtehude organ fugue for piano, and at Stravinsky’s suggestion adapting some of Schubert’s waltzes and ländler into a suite. Interest shown in Prokofiev’s works by American publishing firms caused him to write two collections of piano pieces: Skazki staroy babushki (‘Old Grandmother’s Tales’, op.31, 1918 ), and four dances (op.32, 1918 ). However, they were not published in America, because Prokofiev would

Article

Harp  

Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Joan Rimmer, Robert Evans, William Taylor, Cristina Bordas, Cheryl Ann Fulton, John M. Schechter, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Hannelore Devaere and Mary McMaster

San Juan festivities in 1863 ) details how the harp was carried in a procession of dancers, the instrument being played as it rested on a boy’s back, while a second musician beat it rhythmically. Late 19th-century Ecuadorian Indians also used the harp in a radically different context: for a child’s wake. In the style of the late 19th-century Quito School, Joaquín Pinto’s painting Velorio de indios depicts a highland Ecuadorian Indian home, where a harpist plays as one couple dances in the patio and the corpse of a winged figure – probably a child – is visible on a

Article

Ronald Lewcock, Rijn Pirn, Jürgen Meyer, Carleen M. Hutchins, J. Woodhouse, John C. Schelleng, Bernard Richardson, Daniel W. Martin, Arthur H. Benade, Murray Campbell, Thomas D. Rossing and Johan Sundberg

, a second harmonic, a third harmonic and a sixth harmonic (see Rossing and Sathoff, 1980 ). Bibliography C.V. Raman : ‘The Indian Musical Drum’, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences , section A, 1 (1934), 179–88 T.D. Rossing and H.J. Sathoff : ‘Modes of Vibration and Sound Radiation from Tuned Handbells’, JASA , 68 (1980), 2225–6 T.D. Rossing : ‘The Physics of Kettledrums’, Scientific American , 247 (1982), 172–8 T.D. Rossing and R.B. Shepherd : ‘Acoustics of Cymbals’, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Acoustics:

Article

Rabāb  

Alastair Dick, Christian Poché, Jack Percival Baker Dobbs, Margaret J. Kartomi, Jean During and John Baily

a pegbox, straight and ‘sawn-off’, which continues the slightly tapering line of the neck (see e.g. A.H. Fox Strangways, The Music of Hindostan , Oxford, 1914 / R 1965, pl.1); in the other ( fig.2 ), doubtless the ‘south-central Indian’ type of Abul Fazl, the barbs are much reduced, the shell is more ovoid, the bridge (the deep Indian type) is nearer the centre and the pegbox is a semicircular bulge at the back, with an upper, non-functional, bent-back scroll. This is probably a development of the late Sultanate Deccan Muslim states, and it survives today in bowed

Article

Richard Colwell, James W. Pruett, Pamela Bristah, Richard J. Colwell and David G. Woods

the development of African American hymnody. By 1776 most African Americans had little if any first-hand experience of native African music, and thus their music became a combination of Protestant hymns and variations of African folk songs. Improvisation Watts’ hymns ( 1717 ) made them more popular than the chorales characteristic of pilgrim worship services. Slaves were able to procure instruments and become sufficiently proficient to be valued for entertaining at dances and parties of the white community. By 1723 , an African American trumpeter was listed in the

Article

J. Peter Burkholder

as the American national anthem The Star-Spangled Banner ( 1814 ), with new words by Francis Scott Key to John Stafford Smith's tune for the English drinking-song To Anacreon in Heaven ( c 1775 ). German street songs were often adaptations of melodies from popular marches, dances or songs from operettas or Singspiele, with new, usually sentimental or humorous words ( see Gassenhauer ). Melodies of 19th-century American popular songs and hymns are often related, as if a songwriter began with a fragment of a familiar tune and extended it. Thus the American Civil

Article

Rokus de Groot

order marked a number of Schat’s works of the 1960s. Labyrint , ‘a kind of opera’, first performed at the 1966 Holland Festival, also expands upon the idea of theatre, containing independently functioning layers of instrumental music, singing, mime, stage action, plastic arts, film, dance and set design. One of the work's aims is a disorientation of the spectator, aided by the choir – split into five separate groups spread among the audience – which passes comments in different languages, thereby discouraging any single interpretation of the spectacle. Nevertheless a

Article

Percival Price, Charles Bodman Rae and James Blades

made of gold and silver alloys in smaller sizes. Generally in South America the crotal was both a ritual object and an article of dress. In Peru it was attached to the leg to mark rhythms in dances. Metal crotals were circulated widely along trade routes from Argentina to what is now the central USA, being particularly attractive to peoples without indigenous metal. For their ceremonies the Aztecs imported great numbers of crotals from subject peoples. Metal open bells were also made in South America, but were less widely used than the crotal. They were made in several

Article

Philip Brett and Elizabeth Wood

such as the even faster and louder House music of the 1980s, and later Acid and Techno, developed as Disco moved into the straight mainstream. In the 1990s gay dance music was strongly affected by the artistry of RuPaul, possibly the recording industry's most successful drag queen. Like rock and roll before them, Disco and House were heavily derived from black performing styles and sounds, the African-American diva from Grace Jones to RuPaul being as important here as in the opera house. They momentarily displaced racial tensions to create an idealized arena for queer

Article

Turkey  

Kurt Reinhard, Martin Stokes and Ursula Reinhard

metres occur in some folksongs (e.g. the kırık hava ), they are found principally in dance-songs and instrumental dance melodies. Foremost among the dances is the halay , a round dance that is choreographically rather than musically fixed, and almost exclusively performed by men. Other dance forms are the bar in eastern Turkey, the horon (Gk. choros ) of the Black Sea and the zeybek in the west. There are numerous other dance forms, many specific to certain regions. Most dances are accompanied by the davul (bass drum) and zurna (double-reed aerophone), an

Article

Jennifer Doctor, Judith LeGrove, Paul Banks, Heather Wiebe and Philip Brett

Morris Dance, from Gloriana [1953], arr. I. Holst, 2 descant rec (1957) March, from Gloriana [1953], arr. I. Holst, descant rec (1959) Concord, from Gloriana [1953], arr. C. Norton, pf (1989) Most MSS at GB-ALb Principal publishers: Boosey &Hawkes, Faber, OUP, Chester For further details see Banks (B1999) Writings † repr. in Britten on Music (Oxford, 2003) ‘“As You Like It”: Walton’s Music’, World Film News , 1/7 (1936), 46 only† ‘An English Composer sees America’, Tempo [New

Article

François Lesure and Roy Howat

performed together. On his return from a tour to Vienna and Budapest in 1910 , Debussy agreed to compose Le martyre de Saint Sébastien , a ‘mystery’ in five acts by Gabriele D’Annunzio, for the dancer Ida Rubinstein. He wrote it in two months, with Caplet’s help for the orchestration ( 1911 ), but critical opinion was divided about its success. A commission from another dancer, the Canadian Maud Allan, led him to compose a ballet, Khamma , on a scenario set in ancient Egypt, but tiring of Allan’s demands he left the orchestration to Charles Koechlin. A request from

Article

Graham Sadler and Thomas Christensen

much less. In spite of the lack of prestige attached to the Fairs, he was to make useful contacts there, among them Louis Fuzelier, future librettist of Les Indes galantes . On 10 September 1725 Rameau attended a performance by two Louisiana Indians at the Théâtre Italien; he was soon to characterize their dancing in the harpsichord piece Les sauvages , later published in his Nouvelles suites de pieces de clavecin . Les sauvages was one of the works that Rameau referred to in his oft-quoted letter ( 25 October 1727 ) to the dramatist Antoine Houdar de Lamotte

Article

during this Indian summer of the 1930s and 1940s, and the Corelli Variations were in a sense preparatory exercises for the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini ( 1934 ), a much more tautly constructed piece than the often diffuse Fourth Piano Concerto ( 1926 ). Like the Paganini Rhapsody, the other late works with orchestra – the Three Russian Songs ( 1926 ) and the Third Symphony ( 1935–6 ) – reveal Rachmaninoff’s interest in individual instrumental tone qualities, and this is highlighted by his use of an alto saxophone in his last work, the Symphonic Dances ( 1940 ). In

Article

Howard Mayer Brown, David Hiley, Christopher Page, Kenneth Kreitner, Peter Walls, Janet K. Page, D. Kern Holoman, Robert Winter, Robert Philip and Benjamin Brinner

Schechter : The Indispensable Harp: Historical Development, Modern Roles, Configurations, and Performance Practices in Ecuador and Latin America (Kent, OH, 1992) A. Shiloah : Jewish Musical Traditions (Detroit, 1992) K. Marshall , ed.: Rediscovering the Muses: Woman’s Musical Traditions (Boston, 1993) [incl. S. Weiss: ‘Gender and Gender : Gender Ideology and the Female Gender Player in Central Java’, 21–48; C. Meyers: ‘Drum-Dance-Song Ensemble: Women's Performance in Biblical Israel’, 49–67; E. Teeter: ‘Female Musicians in Pharaonic Egypt’, 68–91] A. Miner :

Article

Arthur Jacobs

and Sullivan and their Victorian World (London, 1976) J. Wolfson : Final Curtain: the Last Gilbert and Sullivan Operas (London, 1976) A. Jacobs : ‘The Secret Diaries of Sir Arthur Sullivan’, High Fidelity/Musical America , 27/7 (1977), 46–50 A. Hyman : Sullivan and his Satellites (London, 1978) R. Allen : Gilbert and Sullivan in America (New York, 1979) R. Sherr : ‘Schubert, Sullivan and Grove’, MT , 112 (1980), 499–500 G. Emmerson : Arthur Darling (London, ON, 1980) D. Lisle : ‘Sullivan and the Crystal Palace’, Sir Arthur Sullivan Society

Article

Ralph P. Locke

revised by Hugh Macdonald

Gounod and Bizet to Saint-Saëns, Franck, and their Followers’, The Nineteenth-Century Symphony , ed. D.K. Holoman (New York, 1997), 163–94 R.P. Locke : ‘Cutthroats and Casbah Dancers, Muezzins and Timeless Sands: Musical Images of the Middle East’, The Exotic in Western Music , ed. J. Bellman (Boston, 1998), 104–36, 326–33 M. Pisani : ‘“I’m an Indian Too”: Creating Native American Identities in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Music’, The Exotic in Western Music , ed. J. Bellman (Boston, 1998), 218–57 A. Millard : Félicien David et l’aventure

Article

service in Hindi may well contain various musical elements, each remaining largely intact: North and South Indian melodies, Indian and Western instruments, Hindu and Moslem chant, and English hymns with their original tunes in four-part harmony. Some Christian musicians have attempted a fusion of rāgas with Gregorian chant. Some aboriginal groups in the east-central plateau, such as the Munda people, have reverted to the use of their own melodies, with drumming and dancing, but (as in Africa) with some perceptible traces of Western influence that distinguish it from the music

Article

Radio  

Siegfried Goslich, Rita H. Mead, Timothy Roberts and Joanna C. Lee

a wide range of styles. (iii) Latin America. Latin American countries operate on the American model of private radio stations, although some public radio stations are directly run by government ministries. Amateur radio broadcasts began in 1921 , but the Mexican government never developed a national public radio system (although it owns a few national stations) and has allowed commercial, private stations to flourish. The first radio networks, XEW and XEQ, were both founded in 1938 with American capital as subsidiaries of RCA and CBS respectively