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Barbara A. Petersen

revised by Don C. Gillespie

Amram began a long association with Joseph Papp, producer for the New York Shakespeare Festival, who commissioned incidental music for Titus Andronicus ; during the period 1956–67 Amram composed scores for 25 Shakespeare productions at the festival, and in 1968 completed his comic opera Twelfth Night . Among his many subsequent commissions for television, jazz bands, films and the theatre is the incidental music for Archibald MacLeish's J.B. , which won a Pulitzer Prize in 1959 . Amram formed friendships with Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg and other writers of


Kristina Yapova

time of its new epoch. His musical work is mainly choral and is divided between church and secular genres. The first is represented mainly by the cycles of chants for the Liturgy and for the All-Night Vigil, the second by the songs based on Bulgarian folklore. A many-sided creative person, Christov has exerted a profound impact upon the generations after him who worked in all fields of Bulgarian music culture. Works (selective list) Orchestral Two Balkanski suiti [Balkan Suite Nos.1, 2], 1903, 1916 Turjestvena ouvertura ‘Ivaylo’ [Festive Overture Ivailo], 1906 Turjestven


George Leotsakos

revised by Danae Stefanou

to some extent, that of Stravinsky and Bartók. All but four of the compositions of this period were later withdrawn as he turned towards more novel techniques, including serial writing and aleatory forms. Nevertheless, between the 1960s and 1980s, the composer retained a parallel interest in songwriting, and composed music for several popular songs, many of which (e.g. ‘Do you like Greece?’ and ‘Stin Plateia Avissynias’) enjoyed regular radio airplay and were frequently performed in public in Greece. Kounadis’s operas, though considerably successful in Germany, have


revised by Herbert Antcliffe, Corneel Mertens and Diana von Volborth-Danys

evolved from Romantic lyricism to Impressionism, though his orchestral works are reminiscent of Schumann, Brahms and Wagner. Works ( selective list ) Opera De kinderen der zee (3, R. Verhulst), 1901–45 Choral (Lady Macbeth cant.), A, T, Bar, chorus, orch, 1893 songs with pf or orch Songs (all for 1v, pf; texts by G. Gezelle) Het jonge jaar, 1900 Hoe schoon de morgendauw, 1900 ‘Is de mandel, 1900 ‘t Pardoent, 1900


Peter Branscombe

the court theatres dates from 1804 . He is listed in the theatre almanac of 1809 as Kapellmeister Gyrowetz’s deputy, and by the 1815 almanac he had advanced to fourth of the six Kapellmeister at the court theatres. Umlauf retired in 1825 during Barbaia’s direction of the court opera, and applied without success for the post of second Kapellmeister at the Stephansdom. It was 1840 before he again came to the fore, this time as music director at the two court theatres, but his lengthy absence had left him quite out of touch and he soon retired again, dying not long


Stephan D. Lindeman

attracted the favourable notice of Mendelssohn. The two were part of a circle in Berlin that included the baritone and writer Eduard Devrient, librettist of Taubert's operas Der Kirmes (? 1832 ) and Der Zigeuner ( 1832 ). Mendelssohn and Taubert both studied piano with Berger, and correspondence between the two survives. In these letters Mendelssohn identifies the lack of impetus and spirit which, with all of Taubert's real musicianship, refined taste and immense industry, nevertheless hindered him from achieving real importance as a composer. His larger works suffer


Robert Falck

entirely unnecessary to assume that Adam is the composer of the latter. Of the three dramatic works containing music only Robin et Marion uses music extensively. While it shares with the later opéra comique the combination of sung and spoken parts, it is more a parody of the narrative pastourelle than a precursor of the later opéra comique . Indeed, the early opera did grow at least in part from the same pastoral tradition, but Adam’s early precedent was not taken up by the next generation, and thus remains an isolated phenomenon. It has been argued that much


Deborah Schwartz-Kates

Argentina and one of the most influential members of the Grupo Renovación. He skillfully combined a broad spectrum of national sources (representing indigenous, criollo , and urban popular traditions) with contemporary techniques. Gianneo composed approximately 100 works covering all genres (except opera) and is best known for his orchestral and chamber music. His early compositions, exemplified by the symphonic poems Turay-Turay ( 1927 ) and El tarco en flor ( 1930 ), reveal his fascination with the indigenous culture and landscape of northwestern Argentina. After joining


Viorel Cosma

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

writing for the opera ( Orestes and Oedipus , 2001 ) and explored the genres of symphony and concerto, faithful to the idea of employing obsessive, laconic motives (sometimes using alphorn signals), in a harmonic and gestural austerity. Works ( selective list ) Stage Secretul lui Don Giovanni [Don Giovanni’s Secret] (I. Balea, after D. Tamás), 1969, Cluj, 8 July 1970 Oreste-Oedipe (Olivier Apert), 1999–2001, Cluj, 4 April 2007 Film scores The Verdict (Ferenc Kósa), 1970 Red Apples (Alexandru Tatos), 1976 Above All (Nicolae Mărgineanu


Vladimír Godár

cantatas Svadba Jánošíka (‘Jánošík's Wedding’, 1927 ) and Divný zbojník (‘Strange Brigand’, 1933 ), and other choral works and songs. His long life inevitably resulted in a variety of styles and changes. His output, which covers all genres of the time, laid the foundations for modern Slovak music. Works MSS in SQ-BRnm Operas Jaroslav a Laura [Jaroslav and Laura] (V. Pok Poděbradský), T, orch, 1873, inc. Wieland der Schmied (3, O. Schlemm, after R. Wagner), 1880–90, perf. as Kováč Wieland, Bratislava, National, 28 April 1926


Evgeny Machavariani

revised by Gulbat Toradze

by his continuing interest in folk choral singing, as well as by his early work as a choirmaster. This evolution led him naturally to opera, by way of a programmatic symphonic poem ( Mtsïri , 1956 ), songs to words by Pshavela and Pushkin, and vocal orchestral cycles on texts by G. Tabidze and other Georgian poets ( 1957–9 ), works distinguished by an ever more noticeable social element. Mindia ( 1960 ) was the culminating opera, an organic solution of new problems, glorifying the wisdom of a harmonious union between man and nature. It is built on the transformation


Othmar Wessely

realized its worth and succeeded in arranging for its first performance in 1865 . As an opera conductor he did much for Wagner, performing both Rienzi and Die Meistersinger . He also recognized Bruckner’s talent and was responsible for his appointment as professor of counterpoint at the Vienna Conservatory in 1868 . He played a significant role in Viennese musical life during the third quarter of the 19th century. Works Sacred choral 7 masses, 7 offs, 3 pss, 7 hymns, grad, all, 8 other smaller works; orat, inc. Secular vocal incid music to Faust (J.W


Phillip Ramey

as assistant conductor of the Century Opera, New York ( 1912–13 ) and as an assistant conductor at the Bayreuth Festival ( 1913–14 ). During World War I, he entertained troops by writing musicals and an operetta, Who Can Tell? ( c 1918 ). John Philip Sousa appointed him an Army bandmaster after the armistice. In 1919 he returned to Chicago, where he taught first at the Chicago Musical College and then, from 1933 , at the American Conservatory. He was awarded the David Bispham Memorial Medal in 1939 for his Civil War opera Daughter of the South . Collins’s c


Robert Parker

orchestra as a symphonic suite in five movements. Ancient Greek theatre was also the basis for two lesser-known later works: the cantata Prometheus Bound ( 1956 ) and Upingos ( 1957 ), incidental music for solo oboe for Euripides' Hippolytus . But though he wrote five ballets, an opera and incidental music, Chávez was not notably a composer for the theatre. His ballets are better known as concert pieces; he failed to get either El fuego nuevo or Pirámide staged, and Los cuatro soles did not reach production until 1951 in the favourable political climate that


Leonora Saavedra

SO, the LSO, the New Philharmonia Orchestra, the Solistas de México and Venezuela's Orquesta Sinfónica ‘Simón Bolívar’, winning two Grammy nominations. As a conductor he focussed on 20th-century music from Russia, France, Spain, Latin America and the USA, and, after 1982 , also on opera and early music. His conducting was praised for its transparency, clarity and precision. In 1974 he received the Elias Sourasky Prize from the Mexican government and in 1984 became a member of Mexico's Colegio Nacional. Works ( selective list ) Instrumental


Michel Stockhem

activities – including the Concerts Ysaÿe and the giving of private lessons – and up to 1928 he continued to perform in notable concerts in Europe. (They included all Beethovan's sonatas with Clara Haskil and the Violin Concerto conducted by Pablo Casals, for the Beethoven centenary in 1927 .) His right foot was amputated in 1929 . He gave his last concert in November 1930 and finished writing an opera (on a popular Belgian subject), which was given its première at the Théâtre Royal in Liège a few weeks before his death. Ysaÿe's playing influenced three generations


Piero Weiss

revised by Michael Musgrave

he was at last able to visit Vienna, where he spent three months and made Beethoven’s personal acquaintance. Later Wiedebein was obliged to support his family by teaching, but in 1816 he embarked on a new career as principal conductor of the court orchestra and from 1818 of the opera as well. In 1817 he travelled together with A. Klingemann through Germany to gather support for a national theatre, which was inaugurated the following year. As operatic director of this theatre in Brunswick he contributed substantially to its artistic success, and he brought new


Delmer D. Rogers

explored by American composers in the 19th century. Bristow's best-known works, including his opera Rip Van Winkle , oratorio Daniel , and symphonies in D minor, op.24, and F♯ minor, op.26, have been revived in either recordings or live performances. However, many fine unknown works, such as his two string quartets, two duos for violin and viola, Arcadian Symphonie , Niagara Symphony , violin sonata, solo song The Abode of Music and piano piece Dreamland , which are all in manuscript, reveal a talented composer. A valuable autobiographical sketch, Life of a Musician


Rossana Dalmonte

works, which he referred to as ‘theatre of the ears’, including Don Perlimplin , Il mio cuore è nel sud , Ritratto di Erasmo and Ages ; and Hyperion was, at least initially, a ‘poem in dramatic form’. With the Venetian Journal and particularly with the opera Satyricon , Maderna once and for all severed his links with the Darmstadt poetic. An extensive use of quotation takes precedence over structural principles in both works; and in the latter the unifying force of a plot is annulled by the employment of several open-ended narrative strands. In this final


Bo Wallner and Hans Åstrand

chorus and orchestra ( 1888–9 ) presented. Following this he appeared frequently as a soloist and gave around 1000 concerts with Aulin and his quartet all over Sweden. Stenhammar’s début as a conductor had come earlier, in 1897 , when he directed the first performance of his concert overture Excelsior! . He held appointments as artistic director of the Stockholm Philharmonic Society ( 1897–1900 ), of the Royal Opera for one season, of the New Philharmonic Society ( 1904–6 ) and of the newly formed Göteborg Orchestral Society ( 1906–22 ). In this last post he made