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Nancy B. Reich

work became known to the musical world. Almost without exception, Clara played at the première of each work he wrote for or with piano; and almost all his orchestral works were introduced in concerts in which she was the solo artist. In 1878 Clara Schumann became principal teacher of piano at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, but did not relinquish her performing career. Her presence attracted students from all over the world and especially from England, where she was an immensely popular performer. She made her last public appearance as a pianist in 1891

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Suzanne Clercx-Lejeune

Pierre continued his itinerant career in the prince's entourage, accompanying him on all his travels, in Austria and to Paris, Mariemont and Tervuren. He also continued to compose numerous symphonies. As peace approached, however, he began to think of settling, and in 1762 he obtained a seven-year contract as director of the Brussels Grand Théâtre; there he conducted, and was in charge of choosing the repertory: tragedies and comedies of the French theatre, as well as opéras comiques which he had composed ( La bagarre ), arranged ( Les soeurs rivales ) or written

Article

Isabelle Henrion-Dourcy

was apparently so amazing that people preferred not to be near him when he sang. He was an expert in all the repertory and modified the style by adding ornamental mgrin-khug at the beginning of the operatic songs. He also devised a teaching method for this art of singing. He is said to have lacked humility; his behaviour attracted both fame and trouble to the troupe, which was fined for his eccentricities. He married in southern Tibet and founded a famous local opera troupe there, in which the father of Nor-bu Tshe-ring was trained and identified as a future sKyor-mo-lung

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three small children’. Nothing further is known of Grabu's activities until April 1683 , when he competed unsuccessfully for a post in the French royal chapel. That autumn Thomas Betterton recruited him ‘to represent something at least like an Opera in England for his Majestyes diversion’. His setting of Dryden's allegorical opera Albion and Albanius was put into rehearsal during winter 1684 , only to be interrupted by Charles II's death on 6 February 1685 . It was finally produced on 3 June, but ran for only six nights before being interrupted by Monmouth's rebellion

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Lionel Salter

first rank; he later made five world tours. Almost entirely self-taught as a composer, Manén had begun to write at 13, and in 1900 he conducted a concert of his own works in Barcelona. His first opera, Juana de Nápoles (produced when he was 19), was well received at the Barcelona Liceu, and he immediately followed this with Acté , for which (as for all his later operas) he wrote his own libretto. He then spent time in Germany, where he acquired an admiration for Wagner and Richard Strauss, which can be observed in his orchestral writing. Strauss’s influence on his

Article

Peter Holman and Robert Rawson

where according to Walther he composed ‘more German operas’. During this period a number of his instrumental collections were published by Roger of Amsterdam. By 1706 he was in Breslau in the service of Duke Karl Philipp of Neuberg, the younger brother of the Elector Palatine. He remained in Karl Philipp's service for the rest of his life; in October 1707 he was a Kammermusiker in the Innsbruck Hofkapelle and rose to the position of Konzertmeister in 1708 . In that same year Finger was back in Berlin, where his operas Der Sieg der Schönheit über die Helden and

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interest of his chamber works. His brother Joseph(-Antoine) Godecharle ( b Brussels, bap. 17 Jan 1746 ; d Brussels, 21 March 1829 ) was first oboist at the royal chapel from 1766 until the chapel was disbanded in 1794 , and in 1768 oboist in the orchestra at the Brussels Opéra. Another brother, Louis-Joseph-Melchior ( b Brussels, bap. 5 Jan 1749 ; d Brussels, 8 June 1807 ), was attached to the church of St Michel et Ste Gudule as a singer, and was a baritone at the royal chapel until 1794 . Works 6 sinfonie a 4 o 8 partite

Article

Susan Pratt Walton

established a music and dance school called Penyuarga (Penyuara Gamelan) with the help of two prominent musicians in Surakarta, Sutarman and Prawotosaputro. The leading singer and dancer in the Mangkunegaran palace, she was particularly acclaimed in the genres of langen driyan (all-female dance-opera), tetembangan (classical sung poetry), and wayang kulit (shadow puppet theatre); she also composed her own vocal cèngkok (melodic patterns) and wangsalan (two-line vocal texts). Her vocal style was marked by intelligence, deep feeling, and elegant simplicity. During

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choir in Gregorian chant, and in 1909 visited the Benedictine monastery at Maria Laach, Germany, where he studied chant practice. He remained active in the musical life of Boston, retaining unofficial ties with the Boston SO; he was a member of the board of directors of the Boston Opera Company, and served as an adviser on various competition juries. Loeffler also had interests in New York, serving as an adviser on the foundation of the Juilliard Graduate School ( 1924 ). Loeffler's major occupation was composition. He was a skilled and careful, even fastidious,

Article

Ann M. Pescatello, Dave Laing, Judith Rosen and Gregory F. Barz

critic and musical philosopher . His initial interest was in composition and conducting, and he joined numerous young American composers in Europe in the years immediately following his graduation from Harvard ( 1908 ). He spent a season ( 1910–11 ) as a conductor at the Cologne Opera before returning to the USA as a composer and chairman of the department of music at the University of California, Berkeley ( 1912–19 ), where he gave the first American courses in musicology in 1916 . Several of his compositions were destroyed in the Berkeley fire ( 1923 ). Subsequently

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repertory included many leading tenor parts from operas by Verdi, Wagner, Gounod, Mascagni and above all by Russian composers, and a large number of Bulgarian folksongs. He staged several operas in Sofia and wrote many articles in Bulgarian and Russian as well as a book, Po vaprosa za osnovavaneto na Balgarskata narodna opera (‘On the foundation of the Bulgarian National Opera’, Sofia, 1907 ).

Article

Rodolfo Celletti

revised by Valeria Pregliasco Gualerzi

exceptional beauty. Encouraged by the tenor Francesco Marconi to devote herself to opera, she studied with Maddelena Mariani-Masi and made her début in 1900 at the S Carlos, Lisbon, in Pagliacci , immediately afterwards singing in La bohème at the S Carlo, Naples. Although mostly engaged in Paris, Monte Carlo and, above all, St Petersburg, she also sang in New York (Metropolitan and Manhattan Opera House) between 1907 and 1910 , and in London in 1908 (Covent Garden) and 1911 (London Opera House). With an agreeable though limited voice, she was an elegant, natural

Article

Alan Blyth

), Manon Lescaut, Jenůfa, Chrysothemis (which she recorded for Solti) and Marie ( Wozzeck ). In 1962 she created the role of Hecuba in Tippett’s King Priam , and the following year sang Katerina Izmaylova in the first British staging of Shostakovich’s opera. In all, she sang 293 performances at the Royal Opera. At Sadler’s Wells she sang Venus, Tosca, Concepcion ( L’heure espagnole ) and Kát’a. At the Metropolitan, New York, she created the role of Christine in Marvin David Levy’s Mourning Becomes Electra ( 1967 ). She appeared in San Francisco as Minnie in

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favour is clear from the size and quality of all his parts for her. Rolli paid tribute to her intelligence and acting skill in Lotario ; Mrs Pendarves wrote that ‘her voice is not extraordinarily good or bad … she sings easily and agreeably’. Burney dismissed her, quite wrongly, as ‘a singer of the second or third class’. Merighi was singing in Florence in 1731–2 and Modena in 1735 . She returned to London in 1736 for the unsuccessful final season of the Opera of the Nobility and sang at the King's Theatre in operas by Hasse, Riccardo Broschi, Pescetti, Veracini

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Richard Wigmore

an Opera’s Young Artists Development Program, winning the Met’s National Council Auditions in 1991. The following year he made his Met début as the Steersman in Der fliegende Holländer . His success in the role has led to regular appearances in the house, in roles such as Mozart’s Belmonte, Idamante, Ferrando and Don Ottavio, Almaviva ( Il barbiere di Siviglia ), the Duke ( Rigoletto ), Camille de Rosillon ( Die lustige Witwe ), Des Grieux (Jules Massenet’s Manon ), Tom Rakewell and Lysander ( A Midsummer Night’s Dream ). Having honed a reputation above all as

Article

André Tubeuf and Elizabeth Forbes

of Dialogues des Carmélites ( 1957 ). She created Elle in La voix humaine ( 1959 , Opéra-Comique), a vulnerable, subtle portrayal of a part admirably suited to her gifts, and repeated the role in the American première at Carnegie Hall and the British première with the Glyndebourne company at Edinburgh ( 1960 ). At Glyndebourne she sang an affecting Mélisande ( 1962 ). Duval was a most gifted singing actress, as the roles composed for her by Poulenc demonstrate. She recorded all three of these roles, together with a delightful Concepción in Cluytens’s set of L’heure

Article

Thor, Jr. Eckert

operatic debut, singing Arkel ( Pelléas et Mélisande ) with the New England Opera Theater. He was heard in opera, in concert, and with orchestras around the world. He created the central role in Schuller’s opera The Visitation in Hamburg, Germany ( 12 October 1966 ), and he repeated the role when the Hamburg company made its American debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in 1967 . Among his recorded performances is that of Crown in Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess . He possessed strength and vibrancy in all registers, but it was as an interpreter that he was acclaimed, for fully

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Richard LeSueur

revised by Jonas Westover

and abroad. She has performed and recorded Thomson’s The Mother of us all . Her voice is a large, dramatic instrument, and as an artist she has an expressiveness that is best suited to the grand gesture. She was married to the conductor Kurt Klippstätter, with whom she performed for the first time as Tchaikovsky’s Joan of Arc at the Michigan Opera Theater in 1979 . Dunn has taught at numerous locations, including the University Texas at Austin, the University of Illinois, Northwestern University, Brooklyn College (CUNY), and for several years at Manhattan School

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Alan Blyth

Nightwatchman in Die Meistersinger during the Covent Garden season of English opera in 1909 under Richter, he favoured oratorio and concerts over opera, declaring the latter to be ‘too much work for too little pay’. However, he did not exclude opera from his recitals and practically always mixed aria with classical song and ballads in his programmes. Dawson described himself as a ‘singer of the people’ and believed it essential to communicate directly with his public; to this end he sang all his repertory in English, employing impeccable diction. His bluff, outgoing

Article

Harold Rosenthal

where she was the first local Venus, and then went to Paris where she was engaged by the Théâtre Italien ( 1859–70 ). In 1875 she sang Rachel in La Juive at the inauguration of the Opéra’s new building; she remained a member of the Opéra company (except for a short period, 1885–6 ) until the end of 1888 . She became famous for her portrayals of Meyerbeer heroines, Leonore and above all Aida and Donna Anna; she created a number of roles, including Pauline in Gounod's Polyeucte ( 1878 ) and Catherine of Aragon in Saint-Saëns’s Henry VIII ( 1883 ). At La Scala she