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Article

John Edwin Henken

soloists, chorus and orchestra. He returned to Madrid in July 1846 , and in the following year completed a three-act opera buffa, only excerpts of which were performed. He joined a group of progressive musicians agitating for a national opera under the name La España Musical and in the following year joined the Madrid Liceo, for which he sang and composed. He began writing music reviews for La ilustración in 1849 and worked as a prompter in Italian operas at the royal palace. Although his first zarzuela to reach the stage, Gloria y peluca , had been completed the

Article

counterpoint, Impressionist harmonic subtleties and dramatic complexity, all firmly rooted in folk traditions. He further experimented with this style in a series of choral poems on texts of contemporary poets; these works include L′odolom (‘Icebreaker’) and Litni tony (‘Summer Tones’) to words by H. Chuprynka and Lehenda (‘Legend’) to words by M. Vorony. Leontovych also wrote several religious works (among them a setting of the liturgy and a number of cantatas), and at his death left an unfinished opera based on B. Hrinchenko's fairy tale Na rusalchyn velykden (‘The

Article

Kristina Yapova

time of its new epoch. His musical work is mainly choral and is divided between church and secular genres. The first is represented mainly by the cycles of chants for the Liturgy and for the All-Night Vigil, the second by the songs based on Bulgarian folklore. A many-sided creative person, Christov has exerted a profound impact upon the generations after him who worked in all fields of Bulgarian music culture. Works (selective list) Orchestral Two Balkanski suiti [Balkan Suite Nos.1, 2], 1903, 1916 Turjestvena ouvertura ‘Ivaylo’ [Festive Overture Ivailo], 1906 Turjestven

Article

Michael Fend

to the fore in the thematic development of the final movement. In a similarly experimental fashion, in Quartet no.6 the openings of all the previous movements are quoted in the finale. In Quartet no.1, his most popular quartet, movements are linked thematically and by emphasizing contrapuntal technique; its Scherzo is a ‘Spanish’ genre piece with refined texture and colourful instrumentation. Cherubini's overtures to his French operas became popular concert overtures in their own right during the 19th century. He quickly replaced the Italian overture of Ifigenia in

Article

Ned Quist

revised by Linda L. Giedl

three years of intensive work, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (Die italienische Sonate für mehrere Instrumente im 17ten Jahrhundert, diss., U. of Heidelberg, 1932 ). Later that year he was engaged as a coach and conducting assistant to Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt at the Darmstadt Opera. Beaten with guns by Adolf Hitler’s Stormtroopers in early 1933 , Schlossberg left Germany for Paris. Taking the name Jean Berger in 1934 , he became a sought-after concert accompanist and vocal coach, founded and conducted a small chorus (Les Compagnons de la Marjolaine) and a

Article

ethnomusicologist , conductor and composer of Austro-Hungarian origin . He studied at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik with Franz Schreker and Curt Sachs and at Prague University with Gustav Becking and Paul Nettl. He conducted opera in Karlovy Vary and Eger, Bohemia, 1927–8 . His appointments included those of music director for All-India Radio ( 1935–46 ), head of the piano department at the Conservatory of Halifax, Nova Scotia ( 1947–8 ), conductor of the Winnipeg SO ( 1949–56 ), and professor of musicology at Indiana University ( 1957–77 ). Kaufmann is best

Article

Giselher Schubert

some of the best conductors of the day, among them Willem Mengelberg, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Fritz Busch and Hermann Scherchen, men who would later champion his compositions. The principal conductor, Ludwig Rottenberg, conducted the German premières of operas by Debussy, Dukas and Bartók and promoted Schreker’s operas above all. (Hindemith married his youngest daughter, Gertrud, in 1924 .) In 1915 Hindemith became the second violinist in Rebner’s string quartet. He also appeared as a violin soloist playing concertos by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Mendelssohn. In 1923

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

1844 , from teaching in 1854 and from directing the institute in 1858 . Although he composed a number of original works, including church music, symphonic music, an unperformed opera Scipio ( 1818 ), songs and much chamber and piano music, it is for his teaching manuals and theoretical and critical writings that Fröhlich is renowned. As a theorist he was thorough and above all practical in his approach; as a teacher he demanded that theory and practice should go hand in hand; as a critic, especially for the journal Caecilia , he showed an alert understanding

Article

David Scott

e for all broadcast chamber music and recitals. In 1938 he devised a memorable series ‘Handel in Rome’. After the war he returned to the BBC to plan the Third Programme, which gave its first broadcast in 1946 . Lewis took charge of the organization and general direction of all Third Programme music. In 1947 he was elected Peyton and Barber Professor of Music at Birmingham University, where he continued his pioneering activities. During his 21-year professorship he conducted many revivals of orchestral, choral and stage works, particularly Handel operas; these

Article

Keith Moore

incorporating a rock group and requiring three conductors. From 1976 he focussed on assimilating the entire American musical tradition, including hymn tunes, marches and ragtime, and with Americana, or, A New Tale of the Genii he began his most ambitious project yet: a cycle of three operas, each encompassing a century of America’s musical heritage. Later works such as Arabesques Redux and The Blue Box use modes taken from jazz and non-Western traditional musics. Works ( selective list ) Dramatic Pyramus and Thisbe (chbr

Article

Gerald R. Benjamin

composers and thought that the development of the ‘13th sound’ revolution would in itself be sufficient to give universal renown to Mexico. Out of it would result a new order, less complex though providing for complexity, less constrained though providing for restraint. Works Operas Without microtones La princesse Oïna (Ossian) (1, H. Albert), 1902 México en 1810 (Matilde) (4, L. Viramontes), 1909 Xulitl (3, C. d’Erzel), 1921, rev. 1947 Orchestral With microtones Sym. no.1 ‘Colombia’, c 1926 Serenata, ¼-tone vc, orch, 1926 Sym. no

Article

Armineh Grigorian

revised by Robert Atayan and Aram Kerovpyan

have been produced by the Arts Institute of the Armenian Academy of Sciences, is being continued by other publishers. 2. Works. Robert Atayan, revised by Aram Kerovpyan Komitas’s folksong collections are remarkable for their precision and variety; all the poetic forms, many dialect types and all the modal and rhythmic species are represented. One of his most valuable discoveries was that, apart from ancient folk melodies such as the improvisatory agricultural tunes, the hayren songs of the early gusan (professional minstrels) tradition and variations