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Article

Stanley Sadie

sympathies, with 19th-century opera and its interpretation as their focal point. Porter also established a reputation during the 1950s and 1960s as a sensitive critic of ballet and as a broadcaster. He wrote regularly for Opera (of which he was associate editor, 1953–6 , and thereafter a member of the editorial board) and Gramophone . In 1960 he was appointed editor of the Musical Times ; during his seven years in that position he substantially modernized the journal and widened its scope, particularly in the direction of new music and opera. In 1972–3 he spent

Article

Lawrence Gushee

revised by Bradley Jon Tucker

Aristides Quintilianus (Poznań, 1881) J. Willis : Martianus Capella and his Early Commentators (diss., U. of London, 1959) W.H. Stahl : Martianus Capella and the Seven Liberal Arts (New York, 1971) S. Corbin : ‘The Neumes of the Martianus Capella Manuscripts’, Essays on Opera and English Music in Honour of Sir Jack Westrup , ed. F.W. Sternfeld and E. Olleson (Oxford, 1975), 1–7 T.J. Mathiesen : Aristides Quintilianus on Music in Three Books (New Haven, CT,1983) See also Aristides Quintilianus, §1: Identity and dating Calcidius Censorinus

Article

Alan Blyth

critic for Queen magazine (later Harpers and Queen ) ( 1968–87 ) and opera critic for the Spectator ( 1979–90 ). He was opera critic of the London Evening Standard ( 1990–92 ) and became chief opera critic of The Times in 1992 . He began writing for Opera in 1971 , becoming associate editor ( 1976 ) and editor in succession to Harold Rosenthal ( 1986–99 ); he himself contributed discerning articles and profiles. In editorials he was forthright in his views on all aspects of opera house management and politics. A trenchant and entertaining writer, with

Article

Oliver : The Encyclopedists as Critics of Music (New York, 1947) B. Brunelli , ed.: Tutte le opere di Pietro Metastasio , 3 (Milan, 1951) O.R. Saloman , ed.: ‘Chabanon and Chastelux on Music and Language, 1764–1773’, IRASM 20 (1989) 109–20 B.M. Antolini : ‘L’opera italiana in Francia: intorno all’ Essai sur l’union de la poésie et de la musique di François-Jean de Chastellux’, Napoli e il teatro musicale in Europa tra Sette e Ottocento: studi in onore di Friedrich Lippman , ed. B.M. Antolini and W. Witzenmann (Florence, 1993) 69–96

Article

Charles H. Kaufman

1921–7 . He then returned to New York and served as music critic for The Outlook magazine ( 1927–9 ) and several newspapers, including the Daily Eagle , Daily Mirror and New York Herald Tribune . In all Bonner composed five orchestral works, four chamber works and five operas. The orchestral piece Whispers of Heavenly Death ( 1925 ) and a suite from his opera La comédie de celui qui épousa une femme muette ( 1923 ) were performed by the Baltimore SO. The stylistic ferment in the musical world during Bonner’s lifetime had little, if any, effect on his work.

Article

Etienne Nicolas Méhul and Opera during the French Revolution, Consulate, and Empire: a Source, Archival and Stylistic Study (diss., U. of Chicago, 1982) T. de Morembert : ‘Hoffman (François-Benoît-Henri)’, Dictionnaire de biographie française , ed. M. Prévart , R. d’Amat and H.T. de Morembert (Paris, 1988) M.E.C. Bartlet : ‘On the Freedom of the Theatre and Censorship: the Adrien Debate (1792)’, Musique, histoire, démocratie: Paris 1989 , 1, 9–24 J. Joly : ‘Dall'“Adriano ìn Siria” metastasiano all'“Adrien” di Méhul’, Dagli Elisi all'inferno: il melodramma

Article

David J. Hough

but had no formal education after the age of 16. His first wife, Helen Belle Sneider, became his collaborator, and ‘Norman-Bel-Geddes’ was their nom de plume for articles on art and the theatre, until their divorce in 1932 . Notable designs for Montemezzi’s La nave for Chicago Opera ( 1919 ) and Henry Hadley’s Cleopatra’s Night for the Metropolitan ( 1920 ) attracted Broadway attention, and his innovative approach was soon recognized. At an early stage of his career he discarded the proscenium arch and planned open-stage projects. For a commission in 1924 to

Article

William Ashbrook

Mazzucato's son Gian Andrea, while he was still a student. He was also planning another opera, Nerone , which he would never complete. In summer 1862 he visited relatives in Poland, orchestrating part of what would become Mefistofele and writing the libretto of Amleto for Faccio. He was back in Milan at the end of the year. At a banquet following the première of Faccio's opera I profughi fiamminghi at La Scala on 11 November 1863 , Boito declaimed his notorious ode All'arte italiana , wherein he advocated cleansing the altars of Italian art that had been

Article

Geoffrey Norris

muzïka’) appeared in Otechestvennïye zapiski , and in 1848 and 1849 he published an account of Italian opera in St Petersburg, Sanktpeterburgskaya ital′yanskaya opera v techeniye dekabrya 1848 i yanvarya 1849 ; both articles are included in V.P. Botkin, Literaturnaya kritika, publitsistika, pis′ma , ed. B.F. Yegorov (Moscow, 1984 ). Further articles on Italian opera appeared in the journal Sovremennik , ‘Ital′yanskaya opera’ (no.1, 1850 ) and ‘Ital′yanskaya opera v Peterburge v 1849 ’ (no.2, 1850 ). Botkin was actively associated with the Zapadniki, or Westernizers

Article

Cormac Newark

otherwise stated; all printed works published in Paris Le sicilien, ou L’amour peintre (oc, 1, ?Joncières, after Molière), Ecole lyrique, early Dec 1859, F-Pc * Sardanapale, 1864 (opéra, 3, H. Becque, after Byron), Lyrique, 8 Feb 1867, Pc *, vs (1867) Le dernier jour de Pompéï (opéra, 4, C. Nuitter and A. Beaumont, after E. Bulwer-Lytton), Lyrique, 21 Sept 1869, Pc *, vs (1869) Dimitri (opéra, 5, H. de Bornier, A. Silvestre and L. Carvalho, after F. von Schiller: Demetrius ), Gaîté, 5 May 1876, Pc *, vs (1877) La reine Berthe (opéra, 2, J. Barbier), Opéra, 27 Dec 1878

Article

William S. Mann

Evening Standard . Despite all this journalistic activity he reserved his chief energies for his books. Newman’s philosophy of criticism is summed up in his keenly analytical yet far-sighted treatise A Musical Critic’s Holiday ( 1925 ); his method of analysis in depth is well exemplified in The Unconscious Beethoven ( 1927 ). His major work is the four-volume Life of Richard Wagner which occupied him from 1928 until 1947 , and it has still not been surpassed although research has uncovered much that is new. His widely read Opera Nights ( 1943 ), Wagner

Article

Cormac Newark

propagated a brand of criticism more technical than the literary style of which Théophile Gautier was perhaps the best-known exponent. He was the first trained musician to hold a permanent post at a journal: his predecessor, J.-L. Geoffroy, and all his colleagues were men of letters. Yet he by no means neglected the literary aspect of opera: some of his most forceful diatribes were directed against the use of poor French verse – which he dismissed as no more than ‘rhymed prose’ – for librettos; Gounod apparently echoed him in this in the preface to George Dandin . He himself

Article

John Tyrrell

were to the point and free of malicious polemics and chauvinism. Particularly valuable is his early, eye-witness account of Czech national music ( 1886 ). Four volumes of memoirs remain unpublished, apart from a few excerpts (e.g. 1916 ). His compositions, now forgotten, include the opera Záboj (3, J. Vrchlický, 1906–7 ), belatedly performed at the Prague National Theatre on 9 March 1918 . Writings ‘Smetanovy skladby’ [Smetana’s works], Dalibor , 2 (1880), 225–7, 233–5, 241–3, 248–50, 264–6, 272–5; iii (1881), 57–9, 65–7, 188, 199–200 ‘K.M

Article

Scott L. Balthazar

important study of the choreography of Salvatore Viganò ( 1838 ). His discussions of all types of opera in two works – Consigli sull’arte di dirigere gli spettacoli (Bologna, 1825 ) and especially his Ammaestramenti alla composizione d’ogni poema e d'ogni opera appartenente alla musica (Milan, 1841 ) – surpass in their detail and coherence the comments of other 19th-century writers and composers. In the Ammaestramenti , Ritorni methodically criticized contemporary serious opera and anticipated later stylistic developments in his extensive programme for its reform

Article

Michael Hovland

are not numerous, and almost all were made after 1945 . Among the operas are The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County by Lukas Foss and Capitoline Venus by Ulysses Kay. Musicals and operettas include A Connecticut Yankee by Richard Rodgers, The Apple Tree by Jerry Bock, Tom Sawyer by Jonathan Elkus, and Big River by Roger Miller. At the time of his death, Kurt Weill was working with Maxwell Anderson on a musical called Raft on the River , based on Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. There are also sketches for an opera by Theodor W(iesengrund) Adorno

Article

Elisabeth Bernard

disagreed with its aesthetic viewpoint. In 1887 he joined the ranks of Guide musical , a refuge for Wagner admirers; he also worked for Presse musicale . A passionate Wagnerian, he acted as adviser to Lamoureux when the latter staged Lohengrin in Paris, and translated all of Wagner's operas from Lohengrin on. Cosima Wagner preferred Wilder's translations to those of Nuitter, which were previously in use, but Wilder's librettos were soon rejected by the fanatics of the Revue Wagnérienne , who demanded that Ernst's be used. According to Pougin (supplement to

Article

Andrea Lanza

at the Liceo Musicale in Bologna, graduating in 1885 , presenting the short opera L’oasi as his final exercise. He was at first active as a pianist, mostly as a performer of his own works, but from the late 1890s he turned increasingly to opera. In 1896 he was placed third in the Steiner competition in Vienna with the one-act Il gladiatore , and in 1898 his Sinfonia del bosco was awarded a prize at the Turin Exhibition, where it was conducted by Toscanini. In 1901 his next opera, Chopin , loosely based on Chopin’s life and through-composed with quotations

Article

Gerald Larner

their authority, derived from a long all-round experience of music-making, but also by their engaging intellectual vivacity. Cole’s music has something of the same quality as his criticism. It is fresh, never short of good ideas and, if limited in expressive and structural scope, never pretentious. The clarity of his writing, its uncomplicated rhythms, and the general familiarity of his idiom – basically neo-classical and recognizably English in spite of the echoes of Copland – have made him a particularly successful composer of operas and other pieces for young and amateur

Article

Katharine Ellis

Romantic vision of music in France. Works ( selective list ) all canevas chorégraphiques, first performed at Paris Opéra unless otherwise stated Giselle , Adam, 1841 La péri , Burgmüller, 1843 Pâquerette , Benoist, 1851 Gemma , Gabrielli, 1854 Yanko le bandit , Deldevez, Paris, Porte Saint-Martin, 1858 Sacountalâ , Reyer, 1858 Writings with J. Janin and P. Chasles : Les beautés de l’opéra (Paris, 1845) Histoire de l’art dramatique en France depuis vingt-cinq

Article

Christopher R. Wilson, F.W. Sternfeld and Eric Walter White

librettos by Ritter (all 1798 ), Hensel ( 1799 ), Müller ( 1798 ) and Winter ( 1798 ). As more editions and performances of Shakespeare were produced throughout Europe in the 19th century, so the number of operas increased. Librettos were still far removed from the Elizabethan original despite a growing historicist awareness. Scribe’s Tempest , for example (rejected by Mendelssohn in 1846 but set by Halévy in 1850 ), incorrectly claimed authenticity. Rossini’s Otello ( 1816 ) was long regarded as the first truly great Shakespearean opera, whose success certainly