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Marta Ottlová, Milan Pospíšil, John Tyrrell, and Kelly St Pierre

(alien to Czech’s distinctive first-syllable stress) prominently in her librettos for Smetana’s last three operas, which led to less natural-sounding word-setting than Smetana had achieved earlier with the trochees in The Two Widows. Smetana’s last four operas were particularly well received, in no small part because they received their premières during and after the onset of his deafness. All of these were comedies, the later ones increasingly serious, and all concerned the healing of a central relationship, especially through the passage of years; Smetana’s later


John Edwin Henken

soloists, chorus and orchestra. He returned to Madrid in July 1846 , and in the following year completed a three-act opera buffa, only excerpts of which were performed. He joined a group of progressive musicians agitating for a national opera under the name La España Musical and in the following year joined the Madrid Liceo, for which he sang and composed. He began writing music reviews for La ilustración in 1849 and worked as a prompter in Italian operas at the royal palace. Although his first zarzuela to reach the stage, Gloria y peluca , had been completed the


Guido M. Gatti and John C.G. Waterhouse

exception is La sacra rappresentazione di Abram e d’Isaac , whose uncharacteristically self-contained lyrical ‘numbers’ reflect the work’s origin in incidental music to a play. Otherwise (obviously in extreme reaction against the melodic indulgences of Mascagni and Puccini) all Pizzetti’s operas, from Fedra to Clitennestra , systematically set out to avoid self-sufficient lyricism, except (as in the beautiful ‘Trenodia per Ippolito morto’ in Fedra or Mara’s song near the end of Act 1 in Debora e Jaele ) when choral groups or individuals are actually depicted as


Vera Lampert

studied composition with Koessler at the Budapest Academy of Music ( 1906–8 ) and then went to the Leipzig Conservatory, where he was a pupil of Reger (composition), Nikisch (conducting), Straube (organ) and Sitt (violin). Between 1911 and 1913 he was active in several smaller opera companies: as répétiteur at Bremen and as conductor at Czernowitz (now Černovice), Jihlava and Scheveningen. He lived in Berlin from 1913 and there took further composition lessons from Schoenberg and began to write studies on music, publishing several articles in Die Musik in


Hans Åstrand and Bo Wallner

Schubert centenary ( 1928 ). Some of his five operas and his two best ballets had many performances in Europe during the 1920s and 1930s, particularly in Germany. Best known of these was the ballet De fåvitska jungfrurna (‘The Foolish Virgins’, 1920 ), written for the Ballets Suédois of Paris. Bäckahästen (‘The White Horse’, 1923–4 ), with its naive folkloristic tone and Singspiel character, also met with success, and Fanal ( 1929–32 ) is an effective, ballad-style drama of freedom in 16th-century Germany. All Atterberg’s stage works rely on decorative effect


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

1844 , from teaching in 1854 and from directing the institute in 1858. Although he composed a number of original works, including church music, symphonic music, an unperformed opera Scipio ( 1818 ), songs and much chamber and piano music, it is for his teaching manuals and theoretical and critical writings that Fröhlich is renowned. As a theorist he was thorough and above all practical in his approach; as a teacher he demanded that theory and practice should go hand in hand; as a critic, especially for the journal Caecilia , he showed an alert understanding