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Joel Sachs

revised by Mark Kroll

fugal variations. The typical improvisation included a fantasy-like introduction, themes from popular operas or from the evening’s concert or party and a series of free variations, sometimes ending with a paraphrase of the finale of an opera such as Don Giovanni . In his autobiography Spohr described such an improvisation following a party for the Congress of Vienna: Hummel wove the themes of the concert into contrapuntal variations, a fugue and a bravura finale, all in waltz time to permit the last stragglers to dance.The American pianist Louis Moreau Gottschalk related


Józef Powroźniak

revised by Zofia Chechlińska

he was appointed Konzertmeister by the Saxon king in Dresden. From that time on, all his activities centred on Dresden, where apart from the royal orchestra he formed his own string quartet and taught, among others, Wieniawski and Joachim. In 1861 he retired to his estate at Urłów. One of the best violinists in the first half of the 19th century, Lipiński represented the orthodox Classical school of Viotti and Spohr, with an emphasis on good tone quality. Lipiński’s mastery of all the other elements of technique made his style unique. His compositions include three


Fabio Fano

revised by Roberta Costa

MGG1 ( R. Allorto ) A. D’Angeli : ‘L’opera musicale di Guido Alberto Fano’, Cronaca musicale , 13 (1909), 256–60 I. Valetta : ‘Rassegna musicale: i concerti al Corea’, Nuova Antologia , 44 (1909), 331–2 F. Fano : ‘Di una corrispondenza di Guido M. Gatti con Guido Alberto Fano con notizie e considerazioni connesse’, Quadrivium , 14 (1973), 45–64 F. Fano : ‘La figura di Guido Alberto Fano’, Rassegna musicale Curci , 28/2–3 (1975), 41–4 V. Fano : ‘Come far uscire la fanciulla dal pozzo – Vicissitudini di un’opera: Juturna di Guido Alberto Fano ed Ettore


Romeo Ghircoiaşiu

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

stage as an opera. His symphonic overture Ştefan cel Mare (‘Stefan the Great’) is one of the first Romanian pieces of programme music. As a forerunner of the school of Romanian piano music, he wrote miniatures in a Romantic style, a rhapsody, and fantasies on folk themes, and many dances collected in different regions of the country. His five vaudevilles and his operetta Millo director , all based on comedies by Vasile Alecsandri, were performed by amateur theatre companies. His choruses and songs for schools, salons, and musical societies were all composed according


Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

career commentators noted ‘American’ traits in his music, as in the String Quartet no.2 and the scherzos of his first two symphonies. Some works, such as the lyric drama Judith , show an interest in French sonorities, while The Padrone , for all its evocation of American urban life, draws on the techniques of verismo opera. In the scherzo of the Second Symphony he uses a pentatonic melody resembling black American song nine years before Dvořák included the better-known example in his Symphony no.9 (‘From the New World’). Most movements of Chadwick’s symphony use


Gérard Streletski

of his teachers, particularly Halévy and Berton. However, it was above all his talents as an orchestrator that were recognized by his contemporaries; Gounod and Berlioz in particular paid tribute to his skill. Works MSS at F-Pn, printed works published in Paris Sacred 3 requiems op.7, 1843 (n.d.) op.28 no.1, 1877 op.28 no.2, 1870 Choeurs religieux, hymnes, op.18 (1847) O salutaris, op.14a, 1847 (n.d.) Prière pour la paix, op.28 no.6 (1870) Dramatic Operas Samson, 1837, lost Lionel Foscari (1), 1841, F-Pn *; Le violon enchanté


Lester Trimble

revised by Severine Neff

Conferences. In addition Luening was a co-founder of ACA ( 1938 ) and the American Music Center ( 1939 ). In 1944 Luening was appointed director of opera productions at Columbia University, where he developed a graduate seminar in composition, and professor at Barnard College. During his tenure at Columbia he conducted the world premières of Menotti’s opera The Medium , Thomson’s The Mother of Us All , and his own opera Evangeline . Luening was a founder of CRI ( 1954 ) and a trustee of the American Academy in Rome ( 1953–70 ), where he was also composer-in-residence


Deborah Schwartz-Kates

Argentina and one of the most influential members of the Grupo Renovación. He skillfully combined a broad spectrum of national sources (representing indigenous, criollo , and urban popular traditions) with contemporary techniques. Gianneo composed approximately 100 works covering all genres (except opera) and is best known for his orchestral and chamber music. His early compositions, exemplified by the symphonic poems Turay-Turay ( 1927 ) and El tarco en flor ( 1930 ), reveal his fascination with the indigenous culture and landscape of northwestern Argentina. After joining


Stuart Campbell

resignation Balakirev was appointed director on 28 January/ 9 February 1868 , retaining the post until the spring of 1874 , though latterly only nominally. 2. 1866–72. In 1866 Glinka’s sister Lyudmila Shestakova asked Balakirev to take charge of performances of her brother’s operas in Prague; devoted as he was to Glinka, Balakirev accepted. After delays caused by the Austro-Prussian War, he conducted Ruslan and Lyudmila there on 4/16, 5/17 and 7/ 19 February 1867 and A Life for the Tsar on 10/22 February. Balakirev was never easy to get on with if disagreement


Giselher Schubert

some of the best conductors of the day, among them Willem Mengelberg, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Fritz Busch and Hermann Scherchen, men who would later champion his compositions. The principal conductor, Ludwig Rottenberg, conducted the German premières of operas by Debussy, Dukas and Bartók and promoted Schreker’s operas above all. (Hindemith married his youngest daughter, Gertrud, in 1924 .) In 1915 Hindemith became the second violinist in Rebner’s string quartet. He also appeared as a violin soloist playing concertos by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Mendelssohn. In 1923


received no less than 100 performances; by the end of the century, with the exception of Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar , it had outstripped in popularity all other operas, including those of Meyerbeer to which it is partially indebted. Tchaikovsky considered that, in spite of ‘much padding’, Demon contained ‘lovely things’, and it certainly influenced his opera Yevgeny Onegin , which, like Demon is an opera in ‘Three Acts, Seven Scenes’. The delicate style of the Russian chamber romance which epitomizes the portrayal of Rubinstein’s Tamara is echoed in Tchaikovsky’s


Noel Malcolm

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

intervals, and note patterns are constantly adapted and recombined. As Enescu worked on his opera Oedipe during the 1920s, this method lent itself naturally to the elaboration of leitmotifs: one modern study (by Octavian Cosma) has identified 21 such motifs in the work, although their functioning is so germinal and cellular that it is possible for listeners to experience the whole work without being aware of the presence of leitmotifs at all. Another feature of the opera is the minutely detailed orchestration, which frequently makes use of solo instruments within


Bálint Vázsonyi

this field are all of a high standard. The rest of his output is variable, but he composed excellent works in almost every genre. They show an unerring mastery of form and instrumentation, fluency, and a rich but utterly natural sense of harmony, which enabled him to make unbridled chromatic excursions without ever losing the tonal centre. He succeeded in blending the ‘Brahmsian’ preservation of classical form with the Lisztian concept of motivic strands binding together a large-scale work. His best opera, Der Tenor , is one of the few true comic operas written in the


Kevin O’Brien

music in general and of language in particular which make for a work list that is consistent yet original. His archives are housed at the performance division of the Library of Congress. The majority of his scores are held at the American Composers Alliance. Works Operas The Decorator (F. Getlein, D. Getlein), 5 vv, chbr orch, 1959 The Birthday of the Infanta (M. Ewald after O. Wilde), 8 vv, chorus, orch, 1993 Choral Dante’s Praises to the Virgin Mother, 1952 Mass #3, 1952


Keith Moore

incorporating a rock group and requiring three conductors. From 1976 he focussed on assimilating the entire American musical tradition, including hymn tunes, marches and ragtime, and with Americana, or, A New Tale of the Genii he began his most ambitious project yet: a cycle of three operas, each encompassing a century of America’s musical heritage. Later works such as Arabesques Redux and The Blue Box use modes taken from jazz and non-Western traditional musics. Works ( selective list ) Dramatic Pyramus and Thisbe (chbr


Gerald R. Benjamin

composers and thought that the development of the ‘13th sound’ revolution would in itself be sufficient to give universal renown to Mexico. Out of it would result a new order, less complex though providing for complexity, less constrained though providing for restraint. Works Operas Without microtones La princesse Oïna (Ossian) (1, H. Albert), 1902 México en 1810 (Matilde) (4, L. Viramontes), 1909 Xulitl (3, C. d’Erzel), 1921, rev. 1947 Orchestral With microtones Sym. no.1 ‘Colombia’, c 1926 Serenata, ¼-tone vc, orch, 1926 Sym. no


3. Return to Bonn. In the spring of 1839 she returned to Bonn to finalize her divorce, intending initially to return to Berlin. As a polished performer and experienced teacher, Johanna attracted many students. She re-established the Gesangverein , whose performances of operas, operettas, and oratorios, which she directed, made an important contribution to concert life in Bonn. Together with the poet, Protestant theologian, and art historian Gottfried Kinkel, she co-founded the literary circle Der Maikäferbund . The intellectual exchange with the groups’


Reinhold Sietz

concertos avoid grand soloistic mannerisms, and his own style of playing, with hands still and fingers curved, reflected his belief in classical practice. Of his three symphonies, the first employs small forces, while the second is a cyclically organized work on a grand scale. His operas, despite their Wagnerian trappings, were not successful; his better-known musical fairy tales, based in part on his own texts (written under the name Heinrich Carsten), were composed in a tasteful folk-style. Gifted in many fields, he was also a talented painter and poet. His lucidly