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Manica Špendal

revised by Jernej Weiss

Ljubljana Cathedral to the European level. His contribution was all the more valuable because he was one of the very few thoroughly educated professional musicians in Ljubljana at the time. Among his other compositions are sacred works (eight mass settings in Latin, three in Slovenian, a Glagolitic Mass, several collections of Graduale, Offertorium, and Tantum ergo, and four Te Deum), secular occasional cantatas ( Domovini , ‘To My Homeland’, 1883 ; Turki na Slevici , ‘Turks in Slevica’, 1907 ), a five-act opera, Dom in rod (‘Home and Family’, 1920–23 , to a libretto


Michael Fend

to the fore in the thematic development of the final movement. In a similarly experimental fashion, in Quartet no.6 the openings of all the previous movements are quoted in the finale. In Quartet no.1, his most popular quartet, movements are linked thematically and by emphasizing contrapuntal technique; its Scherzo is a ‘Spanish’ genre piece with refined texture and colourful instrumentation. Cherubini's overtures to his French operas became popular concert overtures in their own right during the 19th century. He quickly replaced the Italian overture of Ifigenia in


Christopher Hailey

direction), as well as the concert première with piano of his first opera, Flammen , in the Bösendorfer-Saal on 24 April 1902 . Several of his early works and most of his songs were published (by this time he had dropped the second ‘c’ in his surname), and his Intermezzo won first prize in a competition sponsored by the Neue musikalische Presse . Probably in the midst of this flurry of early success, though possibly as late as 1904 , he began Der ferne Klang , for which, as with all his subsequent operas, he wrote his own libretto. He had begun conducting in 1895


and broke off all relations with Vitzthumb. The theatre’s financial difficulties obliged Compain to resign in 1775 , leaving Vitzthumb to carry on by himself. Hoping to increase receipts he decided to stage operas in Flemish (the Spectacles Nationaux) at La Monnaie, and formed the Troupe Nationale for that purpose, with artists who included his two daughters Anne-Marie ( 1757–77 ) and Marie-Françoise ( 1758–1820 ), and singers he had discovered in the Compagnies Bourgeoises (his future son-in-law Henry Mees, Joseph Debatty and the Borremans sisters, all trained by


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

1844 , from teaching in 1854 and from directing the institute in 1858 . Although he composed a number of original works, including church music, symphonic music, an unperformed opera Scipio ( 1818 ), songs and much chamber and piano music, it is for his teaching manuals and theoretical and critical writings that Fröhlich is renowned. As a theorist he was thorough and above all practical in his approach; as a teacher he demanded that theory and practice should go hand in hand; as a critic, especially for the journal Caecilia , he showed an alert understanding


Bálint Vázsonyi

this field are all of a high standard. The rest of his output is variable, but he composed excellent works in almost every genre. They show an unerring mastery of form and instrumentation, fluency, and a rich but utterly natural sense of harmony, which enabled him to make unbridled chromatic excursions without ever losing the tonal centre. He succeeded in blending the ‘Brahmsian’ preservation of classical form with the Lisztian concept of motivic strands binding together a large-scale work. His best opera, Der Tenor , is one of the few true comic operas written in the


Reinhold Sietz

concertos avoid grand soloistic mannerisms, and his own style of playing, with hands still and fingers curved, reflected his belief in classical practice. Of his three symphonies, the first employs small forces, while the second is a cyclically organized work on a grand scale. His operas, despite their Wagnerian trappings, were not successful; his better-known musical fairy tales, based in part on his own texts (written under the name Heinrich Carsten), were composed in a tasteful folk-style. Gifted in many fields, he was also a talented painter and poet. His lucidly