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conductor . A prodigiously gifted musician of great versatility, he, along with Parry and Mackenzie, did much to forge the new standards of the so-called ‘renaissance’ in British music at the end of the 19th century. As a composer he brought a technical brilliance to almost all genres, though success in opera, in which he aspired to excel, generally eluded him until the end of his life. In spite of his stature as a composer (particularly in the province of church music), he is perhaps best known as a teacher of several generations of British composers who passed through his

Article

Sérgio Azevedo

Gregoriano de Lisboa ( 1980–90 ) and the Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa (from 1985 ), of which he is the present director and head of composition. In 1984 he became conductor of the Portuguese Youth Orchestra. Bochmann has composed a large number of works in almost all genres except opera, and he has written regularly for young musicians and amateurs. Until the 1980s his music used many of the techniques of the avant garde of the 1950s and 1960s; subsequently, contact with musicians without specialist experience of contemporary music has resulted in greater

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

tsar’s royal chapel, director of the opera and teacher of music theory and head of singing classes at the school of drama. In 1841 , after a visit to Italy, he settled in Paris. His other compositions were mainly sacred vocal and chamber works. He also wrote a two-volume textbook, Szkoła śpiewu konserwatorium muzycznego w Warszawie (‘School of Singing of the Music Conservatory in Warsaw’). Works Operas all operas performed Milan, Scala, unless otherwise stated La testa di bronzo, ossia La campana solitaria (opera comica, 2, F. Romani), 3 Sept 1816

Article

Giles Bryant

preludes ( 1956–8 ), show the same tautness of construction. For Hart House Theatre, Willan composed music to 15 plays. A few years later he wrote or assembled the music for five ballad operas. Commissions by the CBC enabled him to continue this interest in dramatic music: Transit through Fire ( 1941–2 ) and Brébeuf ( 1943 ) were succeeded by his most important work in the genre, the opera Deirdre ( 1943–5 ). This was later adapted for the stage and, in this guise, received several performances. Not above criticism for a certain lack of dramatic fire and a general

Article

David Charlton

some of Paul Vidal’s works) for wind ensembles. Works all printed works published in Paris Stage all first performed in Paris Eros (fantaisie lyrique, 3, J. Noriac, A. Jaime and M. Bouchor), Bouffes-Parisiens, 22 April 1892, vs (1892) L’amour dans les enfers (1, A. Pigeon) (1892) Guernica (drame lyrique, 3, P. Gailhard and P.B. Gheusi), OC (Lyrique), 7 June 1895, vs (1895) La Burgonde (opéra, 4, E. Bergerat and C. de Sainte-Croix), Opéra, 23 Dec 1898 (1898) Ramsès (drame, 1, L. de Pesquidoux)

Article

Viorel Cosma

taught singing and opera from 1872 until 1904 at the Bucharest Conservatory, where his pupils included Teodorini, Darclée, Nuovina, Giovanni Dimitrescu and many others who were to make international reputations as opera singers. Stephănescu himself was never a professional singer, but he was an outstanding teacher, and he summarized his method in Despre mecanismul vocal (‘On the vocal mechanism’) (Bucharest, 1896 ). He conducted at the Bucharest National Theatre from the foundation of the Romanian Opera in 1877 ; he also helped to further opera in the city by training

Article

‘spring overture’ Yar-khmel′ shows; he was also influenced by Balakirev in his interest in the oriental, displayed in his operas Ruf ′ (‘Ruth’) and Izmena (‘Treachery’) as well as in the well-known suite Kavkazskiye ėskizï (‘Caucasian Sketches’). All that he inherited from Tchaikovsky was an elegance of phrasing and a song-like arioso ; Ippolitov-Ivanov's opera Asya was composed mainly under the influence of Yevgeny Onegin . His last opera Poslednyaya barrikada (‘The Last Barricade’), is set at the time of the Paris Commune. Other notable features of Ippo

Article

Gérard Streletski

Filarmonica Romana while he was at the Villa Medici. When he returned to Paris he soon became highly regarded as a teacher and as a composer. In 1846 his one-act Le trompette de Monsieur le Prince proved to be the first of a series of successful stage works up to 1870 , all performed by the Opéra-Comique. The most popular, judging by the many transcriptions, must have been the three-act Le voyage en Chine , to a libretto by Eugène Labiche ( 1865 ). Vocal music was another of Bazin’s main interests. He composed for and conducted choirs in Paris. He was an enthusiastic

Article

John Rutter

revised by Manfred Fensterer

as director of the Hofoper in Dresden. As a champion of German opera, he was at first harassed by pro-Italian factions, but his excellent performances of Oberon and Euryanthe won him approval, and in 1828 he was appointed Hofkapellmeister with responsibility for sacred music, chamber music and the music for the court theatre, a post he held until his death. Besides his activities as Kapellmeister, his contract also obliged him to compose a mass annually for no extra fee. The records show that in all he composed 12 Latin masses and a Requiem during his term of office

Article

Geoffrey Norris

IRMO A. Rabinovich : Russkaya opera do Glinki [Russian opera before Glinka] (Moscow, 1948) [incl. excerpt from Lesta in fs] P.V. Grachov : ‘S.I. Davïdov’, Ocherki po istorii russkoy muzïki 1790–1825 [Essays on the history of Russian music 1790–1825], ed. M.S. Druskin and Yu.V. Keldïsh (Leningrad, 1956), 263–82 L. Fedorovskaya : Kompozitor Stepan Davïdov (Leningrad, 1977) Yu.V. Keldïsh : ‘S.I. Davïdov’, Istoriya russkoy muzïki , 4 (Moscow, 1986), 145–67 See also from The New Grove Dictionary of Opera : Stepan Ivanovich Davïdov ; Lesta

Article

Michael Wittmann

exception of Emma d’Antiochia (Venice, 1834 ) all Mercadante’s operas of 1832–6 had at best a succès d’estime . He was far less popular with audiences than Bellini and Donizetti, a state of affairs clearly reflected in Rossini’s decision not to invite him to compose an opera for the Théâtre Italien in Paris until the spring of 1836 (Bellini and Donizetti had written works for the same theatre in 1835 ), and even then asked for an opera buffa or semiseria . Meanwhile, Mercadante had accepted a commission to write an opera for Naples in the autumn of 1835 , chiefly

Article

Eduardo Contreras Soto

but without resorting to specific references. His harmonic construction is chromatic and rhythmically innovative. His Symphony no.1, with its original treatment of rhythm within a classical format, the opera Elena , various songs such as Tres sonetos de sor Juana , and his piano piece Costeña are all noteworthy compositions. Works ( selective list ) Opera Elena (1, F. Zendejas), 1948, Mexico City, Palacio de Bellas Artes, 23 Oct 1948 Ballets Procesional, 1940 Antesala, 1952 Ermesinda, 1952, suite, orch, 1952 Theatre music Bajío, ov. for

Article

Hugh Ottaway

revised by Alain Frogley

national. A striking innovation is the matching introduction and epilogue. Also used by Bax, the epilogue is Vaughan Williams’s most personal contribution to symphonic form (cf all his symphonies except the Pastoral , where the finale has its own introduction and epilogue, and nos.8 and 9). Although the London was originally to have been a symphonic poem and has been described as ‘a misplaced opera’ – more concretely the composer acknowledged a background link with H.G. Wells’s Tono Bungay – Vaughan Williams rightly insisted that it was ‘self-expressive, and must stand

Article

M. Dee Wilkins

Conservatory of Music. In 2010 he joined the faculty of the European American Musical Alliance in Paris. Conte is frequently commissioned, and among his output are six operas, two film scores and numerous choral works. His first opera, The Dreamers (Philip Littell, librettist), received notice at its 1996 premiere, from which stemmed a commission for The Journey (a cantata, 2001 ). His second opera, The Gift of the Magi , has received numerous productions since its 1997 premiere. Film scores include music for Orozco: Man of Fire ( 2006 ), and Ballets Russes

Article

Theo Muller

Symphonia epica based on Homer and the orchestral studies Päân I and II . But above all Dopper was a Dutch composer, as shown by the titles of his Rembrandt , Amsterdam and Zuiderzee Symphonies. In this last work he neatly combines melodies from Valerius’s songbook Nederlandtsche Gedenck-clanck ( 1626 ). Only three of Dopper’s works have been published; his complete works are preserved in the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. Works ( selective list ) Operas Het blinde meisje van Castel-Cuillé (H.C. Meursinge-Offers), 1892, The Hague, 17 Dec

Article

Joel Sachs

revised by Mark Kroll

fugal variations. The typical improvisation included a fantasy-like introduction, themes from popular operas or from the evening’s concert or party and a series of free variations, sometimes ending with a paraphrase of the finale of an opera such as Don Giovanni . In his autobiography Spohr described such an improvisation following a party for the Congress of Vienna: Hummel wove the themes of the concert into contrapuntal variations, a fugue and a bravura finale, all in waltz time to permit the last stragglers to dance.The American pianist Louis Moreau Gottschalk related

Article

Józef Powroźniak

revised by Zofia Chechlińska

he was appointed Konzertmeister by the Saxon king in Dresden. From that time on, all his activities centred on Dresden, where apart from the royal orchestra he formed his own string quartet and taught, among others, Wieniawski and Joachim. In 1861 he retired to his estate at Urłów. One of the best violinists in the first half of the 19th century, Lipiński represented the orthodox Classical school of Viotti and Spohr, with an emphasis on good tone quality. Lipiński’s mastery of all the other elements of technique made his style unique. His compositions include three

Article

Romeo Ghircoiaşiu

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

stage as an opera. His symphonic overture Ştefan cel Mare (‘Stefan the Great’) is one of the first Romanian pieces of programme music. As a forerunner of the school of Romanian piano music, he wrote miniatures in a Romantic style, a rhapsody, and fantasies on folk themes, and many dances collected in different regions of the country. His five vaudevilles and his operetta Millo director , all based on comedies by Vasile Alecsandri, were performed by amateur theatre companies. His choruses and songs for schools, salons, and musical societies were all composed according

Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

diploma 1933 ); his composition teacher was Nicanor Abelardo. Later he joined the staff of the University of the Philippines, where he was secretary of the conservatory until 1941 . He taught and lectured outside the university as well, also conducting choral groups, church choirs, opera and orchestral concerts. In 1956 he was made director of the Cosmopolitan Academy of Music, and also directed the Centro Escolar University Conservatory ( 1948–71 ). He received an honorary doctorate from the university in 1953 and was made dean emeritus of the conservatory on his

Article

Fabio Fano

revised by Roberta Costa

MGG1 ( R. Allorto ) A. D’Angeli : ‘L’opera musicale di Guido Alberto Fano’, Cronaca musicale , 13 (1909), 256–60 I. Valetta : ‘Rassegna musicale: i concerti al Corea’, Nuova Antologia , 44 (1909), 331–2 F. Fano : ‘Di una corrispondenza di Guido M. Gatti con Guido Alberto Fano con notizie e considerazioni connesse’, Quadrivium , 14 (1973), 45–64 F. Fano : ‘La figura di Guido Alberto Fano’, Rassegna musicale Curci , 28/2–3 (1975), 41–4 V. Fano : ‘Come far uscire la fanciulla dal pozzo – Vicissitudini di un’opera: Juturna di Guido Alberto Fano ed Ettore