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Dave Laing

legitimate releases. In all cases, the recordings are issued without the permission of the copyright owners of the music or the performance. The earliest bootleg recordings were said to have been made at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 1901–3 and many subsequent bootleg discs were circulated in the USA before Congress granted copyright protection to sound recordings in 1951 . Elsewhere, ineffective copyright laws in Italy (which protected performances for only 20 years) enabled the manufacture and export of numerous bootleg recordings of opera performances and radio



Klaus Wachsmann

revised by Patrick O’Connor

interpreter. There is no distinctive musical form that can be called ‘cabaret’: all the composers who have worked in cabaret have drawn on existing folksong, popular song or operatic parodies for their inspiration. Traditions have evolved, so that in particular the slow waltz as used by Satie ( Je te veux , Tendrement ) is recognized as a cabaret style, so is a dramatic tango such as the one composed by Lehár for the cabaret scene in his last stage work, Giuditta ( 1933 ). (Several operas of the mid-20th century have cabaret scenes in them, for instance in Korngold’s


Richard Middleton and Peter Manuel

country, with results ranging from the moderately successful to the disastrous. Perhaps the most egregious example of the latter was provided by China during the Cultural Revolution ( 1966–76 ), when all types of formal music production were disrupted, and music disseminated through the mass media was limited almost exclusively to selections from the five ‘model operas’ and three modern ballets. Music production in communist Cuba, although equally centralized in control, was more satisfactory in the 1970s and 80s, with moderate state support, the richness of the inherited


John Cline

). V. Vale explored similar terrain in the early 1990s. Outsider music does not involve any definite stylistic qualities; criteria for inclusion are generally either negational or relational. Much outsider music exhibits idiomatic characteristics of established genres, ranging from opera (Florence Foster Jenkins) to country music (the Legendary Stardust Cowboy), although in an idiosyncratic fashion. Other examples defy precedent, leaving the critical listener understanding initially only what the music is not (as with Fischer’s a cappella compositions). The term “outsider”



Carl Morey, Gordon E. Smith, Elaine Keillor, Jay Rahn, Geoffrey Whittall and Rob Bowman

the Klondike goldrush, and received its first touring grand opera company in 1909 . Despite the enthusiastic reception of opera, the personnel did not exist to sustain local companies, and successes were outnumbered by failed enterprises until well into the 20th century. Since 1940 opera has been produced in Montreal by the Montreal Opera Guild, the Montreal SO, the Opéra du Québec, and, since 1980 , the Opéra de Montréal. In Toronto the Canadian Opera Company grew out of the Royal Conservatory Opera Company ( 1950 ); though its main productions take place in


Kate Van Winkle Keller

theater was the one place where all levels of society heard the same repertory. During the war, British-held towns were entertained by active theatrical seasons, the musicians of the army playing in the pit and the officers taking roles along with the few professionals who stayed after Congress banned the theater throughout the colonies. For the patriots the ban was somewhat cosmetic. People needed entertainment and talented amateurs found ways to circumvent the authorities by staging “lectures” with music and dancing, and a farce or ballad opera as an extra attraction. Even


Charles Hamm, Robert Walser, Jacqueline Warwick and Charles Hiroshi Garrett

by Arnold, Kelly, Dibdin, and Shield. James Hewitt came to the United States in 1792 ; he composed and conducted ballad and comic operas. The songs written by these composers enjoyed considerable success and were an important part of the first body of popular song printed in the United States. Among the most popular songs in the first decades of the 19th century were those of John Braham, including the duet “All’s well” from his opera The English Fleet in 1342 , and the ballad “Is there a heart that never lov’d?” The songs of Henry R. Bishop were even more popular


Cecilia Sun

proposed radically novel musical material in all facets of music including harmony and counterpoint, and form. In a particularly influential section on rhythm, he detailed his invention of a rhythmic notation that divides the whole note into fifteen equal parts, a system he used in a number of his pieces, including the Quartet Romantic ( 1915 ­–17). Cowell’s occasional unorthodox use of traditional instruments would find resonance in later experimental compositions. Examples include The Banshee ( 1925 ), a piano piece in which all sounds are made inside the instrument


Allan F. Moore

was counterbalanced by Moon's manic drumming, who seized more space and presence than any rock drummer had done previously. The release of Townshend's Tommy (Track, 1969 ) seemed to indicate a change of direction. Following the Pretty Things' S.F. Sorrow it was an early rock opera concerned with the search for identity, and was filmed to great success in 1975 . Like the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper album two years earlier, the response to Tommy was particularly overblown in the USA. A second piece, Quadrophenia (Track), followed in 1973 and, although similar


Michael Birenbaum Quintero, Jason Stanyek, Melissa Gonzalez, Jorge Arévalo Mateus, Mario Rey, Sydney Hutchinson, Lois Wilcken, Roberto Avant-Mier, John Koegel and Edgardo Díaz Díaz

notation, and chance operations with a strong rhythmic drive. His music incorporates expressive color blendings, new sonorities through electronic sound generation, and virtuosic, extended manipulations of traditional instruments. His vast catalog of compositions encompasses all media except opera, and his work has been performed by leading orchestras and soloists throughout the world. Julian Orbón de Soto ( 1925–91 ), of Spanish birth, has been influenced by a wide range of musical practices, including Spanish Renaissance music, Gregorian chant, and Afro-Cuban rhythms



Susan Fast

Waters. These powerful singers exploit the upper range of the voice and lace the sound with distortion, often singing full out, using the chest voice, not falsetto. Some metal singers, such as Iron Maiden’s Bruce Dickinson, developed this style of singing to include techniques from opera (less distortion and more vibrato), the genre of classical music associated with the most powerful kind of vocal production. This singing style is generally associated with hard rock and metal, and signifies power and control. The second kind of rock singing, also derived from blues


Richard Zimmerman

revised by Maristella Feustle

twelve eighth notes—corresponding to a four-bar phrase in 2/4 time—would delineate four groups of three. From 1911 through 1916 , Botsford published a number of works in collaboration with songwriter Jean Havez, and in 1914 , launched an unsuccessful venture to perform miniature operas staged with three or four performers. A charter member of ASCAP in 1914 , he has remained best known for his ragtime works, but also managed harmony and quartet department for the music publisher Jerome H. Remick & Co., worked as music director for various stage productions, and directed


taught to sing by her mother, an opera singer, but she eventually chose not to pursue a career in classical music. She married Dennis Benatar in 1972 and took health education courses at the State University of New York at Stony Brook with the intention of becoming a teacher. In 1973 she began working as a performing waitress at the Roaring Twenties Café in Enon, Virginia. She later returned to New York to pursue a professional music career and recruited Rick Newman as her manager; he took her to Chrysalis Records to front an all-male rock band. She subsequently


Steven Ledbetter

revised by Jonas Westover

Glyndebourne in 1990 of Die Zauberflöte , interestingly updated to the West Coast of the 1950s, provoked adverse criticism for its cutting of all the spoken dialogue (some was restored in a revival in 1991 ), with detrimental effects on the coherence of the work. Sellars’s first production in the UK was an oblique one of the equally enigmatic The Electrification of the Soviet Union ( 1987 , Glyndebourne Touring Opera), a collaboration with Craig Raine (text) and Nigel Osborne (music). Other notable productions include a richly comic Giulio Cesare ( 1985 , Purchase)


Edward A. Berlin

R. Blesh and H. Janis : They all Played Ragtime (New York, 1950, 4/1971) A. Reed : The Life and Works of Scott Joplin (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1973) J. Haskins and K. Benson : Scott Joplin (Garden City, NY, 1978) T. Albrecht : “Julius Weiss: Scott Joplin’s First Piano Teacher,” College Music Symposium , 19/2 (1979), 89–105 E.A. Berlin : Ragtime: a Musical and Cultural History (Berkeley, CA, 1980/ R 1984 with addenda) E.A. Berlin : “On the Trail of A Guest of Honor : in Search of Scott Joplin’s Lost Opera,” A Celebration of American Music:


Charles K. Wolfe

revised by Gregory N. Reish

of bluegrass into a versatile and eclectic idiom. Bibliography D. Rhodes : “The Stability and Versatility of the Seldom Scene,” Bluegrass Unlimited , 15/1 (1980), 14–19 P. Parsons : “The Seldom Scene: All This and Fun, Too,” Bluegrass Unlimited , 29/6 (1994), 16–29 B. Weintraub : “The Seldom Scene: Still Picking After All These Years,” Bluegrass Unlimited , 38/4 (2003), 28–32 External references The editorially selected link below is provided by our partner Alexander Street Press (ASP) and requires a subscription to their site


Gene H. Anderson

techniques, premiered on the early Hot Fives and persisted in 1931 on “All of Me” and “Lazy River” and on almost all other vocal solos thereafter. Upon returning from his second European trip in 1935 , however, Armstrong occasionally modified the raspy texture of his voice to reveal “crooning” capabilities on songs like “Solitude” and “Ev’ntide.” Armstrong’s style of performance evolved little after 1932 and his repertoire progressively narrowed to popular hits. Concerts and recordings by the All Stars fell into a predictable routine: invariably opening with “Indiana


Jessica Bissett Perea

A-Tasket.” She was also renowned for mimicking other jazz greats (most notably Armstrong) as well as instruments (such as singing bass lines). In fact, her legendary rendition of the title track from Mack the Knife: Ella in Berlin ( 1960 )—a song from Kurt Weill’s The Threepenny Opera ( 1928 ) that was popularized by Armstrong and Bobby Darin in the mid-1950s—where she forgot the lyrics and improvised new ones, displays a spontaneity and inventiveness that charmed and endeared audiences. This album subsequently received two Grammy Awards upon its release: best album


Marisol Negrónh

released by the newly formed Fania Records. Affectionately nicknamed “ El judío maravilloso ” (the marvelous Jew) by fellow musicians, he became a member and producer of the original Fania All-Stars, an ensemble band that achieved international acclaim for its live concerts. In 1973 Harlow brought Latin music to Carnegie Hall with the opera Hommy (inspired by the Who’s rock opera Tommy ), and in 1974 he released Salsa , considered one of his best recordings. In addition, La Raza Latina: a Salsa Suite ( 1977 ), which narrated the diasporic histories of salsa


Paul Rinzler and Henry Pleasants

stage career, though she remained active as a singer. In 1969 she and Dankworth founded the Wavendon Allmusic Plan, an educational institution devoted to all styles of music. They performed together again in 1971 , and in 1972 toured Australia as well as undertaking the first of a series of tours of the USA. Dankworth also worked as her arranger, composer and musical director. Laine has recorded and performed opera, lieder and pop music as well as jazz, and in the 1980s was the only singer to have been nominated for Grammy awards in the female popular, classical and