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Article

Giuseppe Gerbino

(Padova, 1989), 239–267 G. Predota : ‘Towards a Reconsideration of the Romanesca: Francesca Caccini’s Primo libro delle musiche and Contemporary Monodic Settings in the First Quarter of the Seventeenth Century’, Recercare , 5 (1993), 87–113 J.W. Hill : Roman Monody, Cantata, and Opera from the Circles around Cardinal Montalto (Oxford, 1997), 203–34 See also Favorita

Article

Alexander Silbiger

bass formula ( ex.1f ). In vocal settings, Italian chaconnes were sometimes interrupted by recitatives (e.g. Frescobaldi’s Deh, vien da me pastorella , 1630 , and Monteverdi’s Zefiro torna , 1632 ). Sections that resemble a chaconne without being identified as such are found in operas, cantatas, and sacred works. However, the present-day tendency to identify any ostinato aria with the chaconne or passacaglia does not appear to have historical precedence unless the piece also shows the characteristic dance rhythms and other genre markings. By the beginning of the

Article

Tim Carter

scene to a play or opera serving to clarify and enhance the perceptual and conceptual frame of the drama, often by securing some manner of collusion with the audience. The prologue can variously outline the aesthetic intent of the work, introduce the subsequent action, and/or pay homage to a patron. The changing place of the prologue in operatic history holds an intriguing mirror to the fate of opera itself, reflecting the various political, social, cultural and philosophical pressures brought to bear on so problematic a genre. The first opera librettists and composers

Article

Murray C. Bradshaw

laude , madrigals, operas and sacred concertos. Ex.1 Tone VII, P-Cug M.12 (c1500; crosses mark the cantus firmus) The ‘classical’ form and style of the falsobordone , associated with the harmonization of psalm tones, appeared in southern Europe in the 1480s. It was known in Spain as ‘fabordón’, a variant of the French ‘fauxbourdon’, but there is little apparent connection between the two beyond that of the name. Unlike the older fauxbourdon, both the Italian falsobordone and the Spanish fabordón chiefly use root position triads and have all four parts written

Article

Piero Weiss and Julian Budden

passages but in other respects not unlike that of the contemporary opera seria (the arias are nearly all in da capo form). Like opera seria , these works are in three acts; Acts 1 and 2 often end with a short brawl for three or four of the cast, the germ of what later, in the north, was to become the extended opera buffa finale. The overtures, three-movement sinfonias, are indistinguishable from those of opera seria . 3. The north to c 1750. Piero Weiss From Naples, opera buffa spread to Rome. Bernardo Saddumene, one of the leading Naples

Article

Alexander Silbiger

by shifting key, mode, and metre in some of their passacaglias. In vocal settings, Italian passacaglias were sometimes interrupted by recitatives (e.g. Frescobaldi’s Così mi disprezzate , 1630 ). Sections that resemble a passacaglia without being identified as such are found in operas, cantatas, and sacred works. However, the present-day tendency to regard any lament with a descending tetrachord bass as a passacaglia does not appear to have historical precedent unless the piece also shows other genre markings. By the beginning of the 18th century the passacaglia

Article

Folia  

Giuseppe Gerbino and Alexander Silbiger

songs and dances, as well as the subject of variation sets. It appeared as a song in Die grossmächtige Thalestris of J.P. Förtsch ( 1690 ), as A Royall Ode for the coronation of Queen Anne in 1702 (contained in A Collection of the Choicest Songs, GB-Lbl G.304), in The Beggar’s Opera ( 1728 ) and in Le théâtre de la foire of Le Sage and D’Orneval ( 1724–37 ); and it is presented as a dance in the books of Feuillet ( 1700 ), Gregorio Lambranzi ( 1716 ; see illustration ) and Taubert ( 1717 ). The numerous sets of variations include those by Corelli ( 1700 )

Article

Richard Macnutt

18th century, after which the octavo format used by the other Paris theatres was adopted. From the 1720s comic operas appeared in a new type of publication that was to become popular in England with the advent of ballad opera: the music of some or all of the airs, though usually only the melodic lines, was printed within or as a supplement to the libretto. This format was continued, principally by the publisher Duchesne, in librettos of many comic operas and parodies from the 1730s to the 1770s, especially those of C.-S. Favart. Until the late 1820s publishers issued

Article

Graham Dixon and Richard Taruskin

minority. Viennese oratorios belonging to the category of Jesuit drama increasingly developed in the direction of opera: the best-known example, Pia et fortis mulier ( 1677 ) by J. K. Kerll, includes all the elements of contemporary Venetian opera, as well as spoken sections. (For a fuller discussion, see Jesuit drama .) A further use of operatic procedures in a sacred context in Vienna is seen in the Sepolcro (opera) . The Jesuits were quick to see opera as an educational tool, and the Barberini family in Rome were only slightly slower in realizing its potential

Article

Howard Mayer Brown, Ellen Rosand, Reinhard Strohm, Michel Noiray, Roger Parker, Arnold Whittall, Roger Savage and Barry Millington

some or all of their parts. Numerous sub-genres, such as opera seria , opera buffa , tragédie en musique and the like, have grown up in the history of opera (information about these sub-genres will be found in separate entries). Some of the sub-genres mix spoken and sung drama in conventional ways. Thus, in operetta, Singspiel, opéra comique and musical comedy the dialogue is normally spoken and musical numbers interrupt the action from time to time. The history of opera is inextricably intertwined with the history of spoken drama. Moreover, since all operatic

Article

Ripresa  

Giuseppe Gerbino and Richard Hudson

Ripresa ( It. ) (1) A repeat or repetition in a general sense, including the repetition of an opera or play. (2) The refrain of the 14th-century ballata and the poetic and musical forms that adopted the ballata scheme, such as the lauda ( see Lauda ) and the Frottola, §2 . It is linked, both metrically and musically, to the last section of the strophe, the volta , and was originally repeated after each strophe. 14th-century theorists regarded the ripresa as the element that characterizes the ballata and distinguishes it from other poetic forms. Different

Article

John Caldwell and Joseph Dyer

(in its Latin version) ‘Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum … qui iustus es’ and the song of the Young Men, divided into two sections (iii.52–6 and 57–90), beginning ‘Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum … et benedictum nomen’ and ‘Benedicite omnia opera’ respectively. The latter calls upon all creation to bless the Lord, an exhortation answered by the refrain ‘laudate et superexaltate eum in saecula’ (‘praise and exalt him forever’). For Western liturgical use ‘laudate’ was replaced by ‘hymnum dicite’. By the last quarter of the 4th century the Benedicite

Article

Edward H. Roesner

first three clausulas in F are all discant settings of the chant segment ‘et Iherusalem’ from Iudea et Iherusalem ; the first is also found in the F and W 2 copies of the Iudea et Iherusalem organum (but with different cadence formulae; see ex.2), the second is found in the W 1 copy of the organum, and the third is unique to the F clausula cycle. 2. Chronology. Analysing the different stages of work in the Magnus liber has proved a difficult task. Even the pieces in the F clausula cycles are not necessarily all ‘revisions’ of earlier settings;

Article

Andrew Lamb

various national styles. It was with the evolution of the Operette in Vienna during the 1870s that the term first became applied to full-length works. When English-language works were produced, the terms customarily used were ‘comic opera’ or ‘comedy opera’; it is only in retrospect that the term ‘operetta’ has come to be applied to all national schools. In Austria the importation of Johann Strauss into the theatre from the ballroom provided Viennese operetta with a composer to rival Offenbach. Strauss also provided the characteristic Austrian style – romantic rather

Article

Curtis Price

that, with apologies to all composers concerned, he had selected the most popular arias from recent Goldoni operas and devised a plot (‘una comica azione’) to link them together. A further sign of acceptance if not respectability is Joseph Mazzinghi’s contract as house composer at the King’s Theatre, London, in 1790–92 : he agreed to ‘compose and select all such new Music’ as required and to ‘arrange all the Pasticcios’. Related to the various types of Italian pasticcio are ballad opera, English comic opera, opéra comique and Singspiel – all of which incorporated

Article

Aria  

Jack Westrup, Marita P. McClymonds, Julian Budden, Andrew Clements, Tim Carter, Thomas Walker, Daniel Heartz and Dennis Libby

even more; after 1650 , in opera at least, two rapidly became the standard number. Most 17th-century opera arias have continuo accompaniment to the vocal line and ritornellos for three to five parts between the strophes. In this respect they differ from those of printed songbooks, which mainly have no ritornello at all, a prescription for one (e.g. the ‘riprese di ciaccona’ of Crivellati’s Cantate diverse ) or a ritornello for continuo only. This difference is probably more apparent than real, since many manuscript collections of opera arias from late in the century

Article

Arnold Whittall

extensive use of reminiscence motifs in earlier opera from Méhul and Cherubini to Marschner and Spohr, and his close friend, Theodor Uhlig, in writings on Tannhäuser and Lohengrin , had drawn attention to the role of recurrent thematic elements in Wagner’s own work as early as 1850 . Indeed, although Wagner was particularly concerned in Oper und Drama (written in 1851 , before he had begun any extensive compositional work on the Ring cycle) to underline the importance of formal units (periods) constructed to ensure that all aspects of the music responded as vividly

Article

Dale E. Monson, Jack Westrup and Julian Budden

at all. The only English operas of the 19th century to have endured are constructed on the model of French opéra comique , using spoken dialogue with occasional melodrama. Balfe, however, made two through-composed settings, Catherine Grey ( 1837 ) and The Daughter of St Mark ( 1844 ), both of which revert to the 18th-century English tradition of recitative in heroic couplets (as used in Arne’s Artaxerxes , 1762 ). A less clumsy, more flowing expedient based on blank verse can be found as late as 1891 in Sullivan’s Ivanhoe . Recitative in Russian opera is

Article

Rondò  

Don Neville

heroine immediately before the opera's last finale, does not comply in all respects to the formal specifications of the rondò given above. Since ‘rondò’ identified an aria of special distinction, composers were not above appealing to the vanity of their singers by assigning the term to arias that were clearly not rondòs in form, content or placement. In 19th-century opera, the form of the rondò became modified and its musical content expanded, the term often being applied loosely to any second-act aria for a principal singer in a two-act opera. Bibliography E. Arteaga

Article

James R. Anthony

(overtures, dances, dramatic symphonies ), vaudevilles and extended parodies of the most popular Lully operas. In 1699 (20 and 27 February) the Théâtres de la Foire felt the full force of their main antagonist, the Comédie-Française. The forains were forbidden to perform entire comedies or farces, but they circumvented this by performing fragments; when all dialogues were forbidden in 1707 , the forains converted to monologues. In 1708 Guyenet, director of the Opéra, gave them permission to use songs, dances and scenery changes, but in 1710 this privilege was