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Article

Arioso  

Julian Budden, Tim Carter, Marita P. McClymonds, Margaret Murata and Jack Westrup

word itself never became exclusively attached to the appearance of phrases or groups of phrases in aria style within recitative, for all the popularity of recitatives that break into lyric melodies in triple metre or into strongly profiled phrases over walking basses in the works of Cavalli, Cesti and Legrenzi. From the 1670s, the term Cavata became associated with such passages. They continue to appear in Alessandro Scarlatti's operas, but when Scarlatti used the term ‘arioso’, he did so as a normal Italian word to mean ‘in a flowing melodic style’: hence, in the

Article

David Fallows

tempo giusto ; and Kirnberger ( 1776 ), following Rousseau’s lead, explained all the tempo marks in relation to a tempo giusto which was ‘determined by the time signature and by the shortest and longest note values contained in a piece’. (2) As a tempo designation (also a tempo giusto ) actually affixed to a piece it is rarer, but found particularly in Handel. ‘Egypt was glad’, ‘He led them out of the deep’, ‘Thy right hand’ and ‘The horse and his rider’ from Israel in Egypt are all tempo giusto ; and Handel originally marked the allegro moderato in the Messiah

Article

David Charlton and Kathryn Whitney

labelling is included, though at times the chorus still occupies all the available staves and the orchestra is simply assumed to play the same notes. The nature of such doubling is sometimes expressed in words, as, for example, ‘Leuti, Tiorbe, Arpe, 3 Violini suonino sopra i soprani che cantano’ (Stefano Landi, Sant’Alessio , 1634 ). If the score had a preface, this might indicate some or all of the possible instrumentation (as occurs in the preface to Peri’s Euridice ). The second complete printed opera score, Peri’s ‘Euridice’ (1601); instruments double the chorus

Article

Ian D. Bent, David W. Hughes, Robert C. Provine, Richard Rastall, Anne Kilmer, David Hiley, Janka Szendrei, Thomas B. Payne, Margaret Bent and Geoffrey Chew

practice, they distinguish major and minor chords; numerals as well as accidentals appeared around 1600 in the thoroughbasses of the earliest operas, which were printed in score (Peri, Caccini). Unlike later thoroughbass notation, the early operas often contain numerals in excess of 9 , and they thus specify the octave for the elaboration of the bass (in Caccini the numerals extend to 15 and in Cavalieri even beyond that. Not all early thoroughbass sources include numerals and accidentals, partly because of the difficulties of setting them in type. The placing of the

Article

Presto  

David Fallows

the two instrumental sonatas (nos.35 and 36); but all the instrumental canzonas are marked presto at the beginning, and most have the subsequent contrasting instruction tardo . This is typical and is very similar to the pattern of its uses by Michael Praetorius ( Polyhymnia caduceatrix , 1619 ; Puericinium , 1621 ), by Monteverdi, whose Chiome d'oro ( 1619 ) includes the marking presto honestamente , by Schütz, who preferred the form praesto , and by other early 17th-century composers. In practically all such cases presto may be taken as the equivalent

Article

Margaret Bent and Alexander Silbiger

5th apart, the signature being omitted when no note of that pitch was required ( 1954 ). But this would suggest that the fear of a vertical imperfect octave was less than of an imperfect 5th (Berger, 1987 , p.66); some theorists say the opposite. All these views accord the signature its modern significance of inflecting all notes written at that pitch level and perhaps of octave equivalents. But if B♭ is available by recta in an unsignatured part, what is the purpose of flat signatures? The possibility remains that they denote the transposition of hexachord systems

Article

David Hiley

the original clefs.) Ex.1 Damett:Gloria in excelsis, GB-Lbl 57950 f.9v (ii) The composer might include a cantus firmus at its traditional written pitch. For instance, in Josquin’s Missa de Beata Virgine ( Werken: Missen , iii: 30–31, 125) and Palestrina’s Missa de beata ( Opera omnia , iv, 1) the presence of cantus firmi of widely differing tessitura as traditionally notated results in movements of widely differing written tessitura, though of orthodox range ( ex.2 ). Ex.2 (iii) It is possible that conventional written tessituras of an earlier period

Article

David Fallows

That may have been a mistake, if one is to judge from the Bayreuth timings kept for all performances since 1882 . But Wagner should not have been particularly surprised to learn that his works are now performed at quite different tempos, for he himself had observed in the preface to the first volume of Bayreuther Blätter ( 1878 ): Why, only 18 years after Weber’s death, and at the very place where for many years he himself had led their performance, I found the tempos in his operas so falsified that nothing but the faithful memory of the master’s widow, then still

Article

Bernarr Rainbow

revised by Charles Edward McGuire

had little sympathy, including women’s suffrage and the Salvation Army, used the notation. And other publishers, such as Novello, William Hamilton, George Gallie, Bayley & Ferguson, and Burns and Lambert, published Tonic Sol-fa scores in genres that the Curwen Press avoided, such as opera and operetta. (iii) Tonic Sol-fa after the Curwens (1916 to the present). No other charismatic leader took over the promotion of Tonic Sol-fa after Spencer Curwen’s death in 1916 . The rebukes by Macfarren, Stanford and others, as well as the failure of some of the more radical adherents

Article

Legato  

Geoffrey Chew

n, but if they are, the performer will normally presume that a legato style of playing is called for. This notion, that legato playing represents an ‘ordinary’ style of performance rather than a special effect, perhaps originated in the cavatina style of early 19th-century Italian opera and its imitation in Romantic instrumental music, or before that in the cantabile slow-movement styles of the 18th century. In earlier centuries, both legato and staccato styles of playing were normally available as special effects, the normal style of playing and singing often being

Article

Bruce Haynes

new woodwind instruments from France during the second half of the 17th century, Cammerton descended a whole tone or more ( see Pitch §I 2., (iii) ). By about 1700 there were three general levels of Cammerton, at about a ′ = 415, a ′ = 403 and a ′ = 390 (‘tief-Cammerton’ or ‘Opera-Ton’). 18th-century organists naturally tended to identify the level of Cammerton in relation to the pitch of the organs on which they played, which were generally tuned much higher (i.e. in Chorton or Cornet-Ton ). When the pitch of the other instruments was a major 2nd below

Article

Matthias Thiemel

distort the sense of the text. Beethoven directed his publisher to ‘have all the p , pp , cresc., decresc., f and ff crossed out of my opera- none of them will be observed, after all, and if I were to hear them, I would lose all desire to write anything else’. Similar complaints have come down to us from C.P.E. Bach, Mozart, Wagner, Mahler, Pfitzner and other composers. In 1924 Richard Strauss lamented the tendency towards louder, less refined dynamics: ‘Incompetent conductors, over-large opera houses, and sad to say, a lack of taste on the part of the general public