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Article

James W. McKinnon

‘Responsorium ideo dicitur, eo quod uno cantante ceteri respondeant … ipse idem qui inchoavit solus, solus versum cantat’ (‘The responsory is so called because to that which is sung by one singer others should respond … he who has begun alone also sings the verse alone’, Amalarii episcopi opera liturgica omnia , ed. J.M. Hanssens, Vatican City, 1948–50 , ii, 259). There is no reference here to a final repetition of the response, and it is not altogether clear whether the soloist is to begin with the entire response or only the intonation. However, the full notation of the

Article

John Caldwell and Joseph Dyer

(in its Latin version) ‘Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum … qui iustus es’ and the song of the Young Men, divided into two sections (iii.52–6 and 57–90), beginning ‘Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum … et benedictum nomen’ and ‘Benedicite omnia opera’ respectively. The latter calls upon all creation to bless the Lord, an exhortation answered by the refrain ‘laudate et superexaltate eum in saecula’ (‘praise and exalt him forever’). For Western liturgical use ‘laudate’ was replaced by ‘hymnum dicite’. By the last quarter of the 4th century the Benedicite

Article

Terence Bailey

this divergence must be due to a regularization of the Gregorian repertory, to make it fit better with the imposed eight-mode system. In any case, the difference seems not to be significant. Nearly all the Ambrosian chants with finales that would be considered irregular in the Gregorian system are simple transpositions: their melodies belong to families, all or nearly all of whose other members are written at levels that correspond to one of the four Byzantine and Gregorian maneriae . 5. Chant forms. Ambrosian chant forms, like Gregorian and those of the other

Article

Robin A. Leaver

: Albertine Saxony in the south encompassed the ducal residence in Dresden and the university of Leipzig (founded 1409 ); Ernestine Saxony in the north was without a court of the stature of Dresden and had no university at all. Thus, Friedrich addressed both deficiencies. In 1502 he founded Wittenberg University, and his court chapel of All Saints effectively doubled as the university church. Modelled on the university of Tübingen, the new university was centred on theology, philosophy, law, medicine and the arts. Its professors, who generally favoured the new learning

Article

Joseph Dyer, Kenneth Levy and Dimitri Conomos

Copies of the asmatikon may contain some or all of the following: the cycles of koinōnika (communions); the choral refrains of the prokeimena and great troparia ; the Pasa pnoē in the eight modes; the hypakoai and the kontakia ; some Proper chants for the Dedication; and some Ordinary chants of the Divine Liturgy, including the eisodikon , the three Trisagia ( see Trisagion ), and the Cheroubikon. Fewer than a dozen Greek copies of the asmatikon survive, all dating from the 13th century or the early 14th; all but two are from south Italy. The two Greek

Article

William J. Summers

masses. A great deal of devotional polyphony with Spanish texts is also extant, much of it for two, three and four voices in a simple homophonic style with some or all voices moving in parallel 3rds. This music, which often presents translations of such well-known prayers as Pater noster and Salve regina , was used during processions, recitation of the doctrina or the Rosary, and Benediction. In all, more than 200 individual polyphonic works with sacred texts survive from California and testify to the richness and diversity of the musical culture of the mission

Article

Michel Huglo, Jane Bellingham and Marcel Zijlstra

south-east France the hymnal of Milan exerted an influence: Bishop Faustus of Riez ( fl 5th century ) noted that the hymn Veni Redemptor gentium was sung almost throughout Gaul ( Epistola ad graecum diac ; ed. A. Engelbrecht, Fausti Reiensis Praeter sermones pseudo-eusebianos opera , Vienna, 1891 , p.203); and St Caesarius of Arles ( d 543) in his Regula ad virgines (ed. G. Morin, S. Caesarii Arelatensi episcopi Regula sanctarum virginum , Cologne, 1932 , p.23) prescribed the hymn Christe qui lux es et dies for Compline; as a means of retaining the attention

Article

Mass  

James W. McKinnon, Theodor Göllner, Maricarmen Gómez, Lewis Lockwood, Andrew Kirkman, Denis Arnold and John Harper

turning to the more profitable opera; and they then often travelled abroad, spreading their style throughout Europe. Although the source of the style was thus homogenous, the resulting music is extremely varied, the more so since Neapolitan-trained composers flourished throughout the century and followed the period's main developments. There is, therefore, no ‘Neapolitan’ mass or even ‘cantata mass’ style, but rather a general attitude that infected the whole century. Virtually all composers studied the stile antico , though not all wrote complete masses in it. Alessandro

Article

could boast. They followed the sovereign from one place to another, singing in the royal chapels at Whitehall, Greenwich, Richmond, Hampton Court and Windsor. For convenience, the choral music sung at all these endowed foundations is generally known as ‘cathedral music’, and this usage will be followed here. 4. English cathedral music, 1549–1645. All parts of the new liturgy, including the daily psalms, could be spoken where no musicians were to be found. They could also be intoned or chanted in much the same way as the Latin rite, the priest being

Article

Ann Buckley

as bells and buckets. Bells associated with individual monks are found from all of the main Celtic regions, including Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Brittany. They had a specific form and were important objects of veneration, to the extent that shrines were constructed for bells associated with important saints (see Bourke 1980 , 1982 , 1983 and 1994 ). 5. The Mass. As elsewhere in pre-Carolingian Europe, there was no standard Mass in the Celtic Church for all times and in all regions. Nonetheless, there is some evidence to suggest that the Mass may have

Article

Richard L. Crocker, John Caldwell and Alejandro Enrique Planchart

problems of research. Complete, definite answers to all the questions raised cannot yet be provided. In general, the categorical – and hypothetical – assertion that the sequence is derived from the alleluia needs to be abandoned, and instead attention should be directed towards what can be established as fact. An approach to the problem, which is manifold, can be made through the following factual aspects. (i) All sequences are related to ‘alleluia’ by the fact that the word ‘alleluia’ appears under phrase 1 of all melodies when they are notated in melismatic form

Article

Nicholas Temperley

innovative in its choice of musical material. The 43 tunes were printed monophonically. Those taken from English sources included many that were unfamiliar; others were German (some, but not all, borrowed from the Moravians), and some were completely new. Prophetically, for the first time in any English printed collection of hymns or metrical psalms, one tune was taken from opera (a march from Handel’s Riccardo Primo ). But the book was incompetently edited and printed and did not succeed. The Wesleys next turned to a professional musician, Johann Friedrich Lampe

Article

Ruth Steiner

revised by Keith Falconer

saint’s life), as are the lessons of Matins. Freely composed texts are found in hymns, in occasional antiphons and responsories, and in the relatively late category of the Versified Office . Bibliography Primary sources J.-M. Hanssens , ed.: Amalarii episcopi opera liturgica omnia (Vatican City, 1948–50) R.-J. Hesbert , ed.: Corpus antiphonalium offici , 1–4 (Rome, 1963–70) La prière des églises de rite byzantin , iii: Dimanche: Office selon les huit tons – Oktoechos (Chevetogne, 1968) J. Wilkinson , ed.: Egeria’s Travels (London,

Article

Michel Huglo

revised by David Hiley

editions and inventories of antiphoners Including electronic resources G.M. Tomasi , ed.: Responsorialia et antiphonaria romanae ecclesiae , 1–215 (Rome, 1686); also in A.F. Vezzosi, ed.: G.M. Tomasi: Opera omnia , iv (Rome, 1747–54), 1–170 [from I-Rvat S Pietro B 79] Sancti Gregorii papae I, cognomento magni: opera omnia (Paris, 1705); also in PL , 78, 725–850 [Compiègne antiphoner, F-PN lat.17436] R.-J. Hesbert , ed.: Manuscripti ‘cursus romanus’ , CAO , 1 (1963) [ D-BAs lit.23; F-Pn lat.17436;

Article

James W. McKinnon

after Prime, and eventually yet another in honour of the Blessed Virgin. Before Matins were sung the 15 ‘gradual psalms’; after Prime the seven penitential psalms and the litany; and after all the Hours psalmi familiares on behalf of monastic patrons. By the 9th century an Office of the Dead was added, consisting of Matins, Lauds and Vespers; by the late 10th century an Office of All Saints, comprising Lauds and Vespers; and this itself was then replaced by a full Office of the Blessed Virgin. Most of these accretions were confined to ferial days, while the liturgy of

Article

Anthem  

John Harper, Peter Le Huray, Ralph T. Daniel and John Ogasapian

imaginative harmonic turns of phrase, as indeed do all his most memorable anthems, not least being the three splendid motets Coelos ascendit hodie , Justorum animae and Beati quorum via ( ex.7 ), written for the choir of Trinity College, Cambridge. Ex.7 Stanford: Beati quorum via During this time of renaissance, a multitude of minor craftsmen, nearly all of them church musicians, produced well-wrought, if generally unremarkable, music for the Anglican rites, including Edward Bairstow (whose fine Let all mortal flesh keep silence will long be remembered)

Article

Anne Walters Robertson

Cathedral (Cambridge, 1892–7) W.H. Frere , ed.: The Use of Sarum (Cambridge, 1898–1901/ R ) J.A. Jungmann : Missarum sollemnia: eine genetische Erklärung der römischen Messe (Vienna,1948, 5/1962; Eng. trans., 1951–5, abridged 2/1961) J.M. Hanssens , ed.: Amalarii episcopi opera liturgica omnia (Vatican City, 1948–50) M. Bukofzer : ‘Interrelations between Conductus and Clausula’, AnnM , 1 (1953), 65–103 J. Marshall : ‘Hidden Polyphony in a Manuscript from St. Martial de Limoges’, JAMS , 15 (1962), 131–44 K. Hallinger , ed.: Initia consuetudinis B

Article

Tonary  

Michel Huglo

Lipphardt) and the tonary of Regino of Prüm ( GerbertS , i, 231 a ) include some examples of responsories for each tone. It is more difficult to understand the inclusion of graduals, alleluias and offertories of the Mass in the earliest of all tonaries, the late 8th-century tonary of St Riquier (ed. Huglo, 1971 , pp.26–8). Not all the chants in the Gregorian repertory imply a dominant–final relationship (these elaborate non-antiphonal chants are used, in any event, only as illustrations of the division of the repertory into eight tones). Individual chants are not assigned

Article

Paul Frederick Cutter, Brad Maiani, Davitt Moroney and John Caldwell

two repertories ( see Old Roman chant ). The following analysis takes into account both versions of Roman chant. Responsories possess two distinct parts, respond and verse. For the latter, each repertory has a set of eight recitation formulae or ‘tones’, one for each mode. All Old Roman and all but a few freely composed, late examples of Gregorian verses, and the doxologies, were sung to these tones ( ex.1 : Gregorian, after AS , 4; Old Roman, from I-Rvat S Pietro B79). Neither melodic tradition is entirely stable; moreover, the Old Roman tones are based on a t

Article

Miloš Velimirović, Ruth Steiner, Keith Falconer and Nicholas Temperley

described by St Benedict as being ‘sicut psallat Romana ecclesia’, and may thus date back in Rome to at least the 5th century. The Rule does not name the individual canticles, but those in use during the Middle Ages are as follows:Sunday: Canticle of the Three Young Men, Benedicite omnia opera ( Daniel iii.57–88, 56)Monday: Canticle of Isaiah, Confitebor tibi, Domine ( Isaiah xii.1–6)Tuesday: Canticle of Hezekiah, Ego dixi ( Isaiah xxxviii.10–20)Wednesday: Canticle of Anna, Exultavit cor meum ( 1 Samuel ii.1–10)Thursday: Canticle of Moses, Cantemus Domino (