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Article

Hugo Cole

compulsory in all state schools increased the demand for choral works suitable for school use. In the years that followed, the operas of Gilbert and Sullivan – tuneful, witty and free of all moral taint – restored the art to respectability and provided influential models for composers of school operas. By the early 1900s Novello, England’s leading publisher of educational music, were advertising more than 50 school operettas as well as a number of ‘cantatas with action’. Most had spoken dialogue; the longest ran for as much as an hour and a half and almost all advertised

Article

John Rosselli, Neal Zaslaw, Thomas Bauman, Nigel Burton, Katherine K. Preston and Adrienne Simpson

advent of televised opera. Today British travelling opera embraces chiefly the touring activities of the ENO (from London), Opera North (Leeds), the WNO (Cardiff), Scottish Opera (Glasgow) and Glyndebourne Touring Opera. See also Carl Rosa Opera Company (opera) ; Carte, Richard D’Oyly (opera) ; Denhof Opera Company ; English Opera Group (opera) ; Intimate Opera Company ; Kent Opera (opera) ; London (opera) §II 1. ; Moody-Manners Company ; Opera for All ; and Phoenix Opera . 5. The USA. Katherine K. Preston The history of opera performance in the

Article

Trio  

Marita P. McClymonds, Elisabeth Cook and Julian Budden

unusual to find one closing an act or at the end of the opera, although the use early in the 18th century of a coro for all the characters to end the opera tended to displace it. Since intermezzos tended to include only two characters, the appearance of the trio became relatively rare. From the 1730s, however, intermezzos for three or even four characters were composed and some, for example Jommelli’s Don Chichibio ( 1742 ) and Don Trastullo ( 1749 ), included trios (the latter has two). In French opera the trio maintained a continuous presence, as one of the

Article

S Giovanni Grisostomo Theatre in Venice, built by the Grimani in 1678 . The largest and most exclusive opera house in the city, it was renamed after Malibran in 1834 , then used for all kinds of popular entertainment; it was restructured in 1919 but soon became a cinema. See Venice (opera) §3 and Venice (opera) §8 .

Article

Edward A. Langhans

comes to the opera at all, might be expected to be happier entering by a side door and climbing an ordinary stairway to the top gallery, where he will be too far from the splendour below to be intimidated by it. The stage and backstage areas of the opera houses are also similar to those of other theatres, but there are important differences, and not only in size. Opera companies almost invariably work in repertory (a different opera every day) and their theatre must be capable of handling multiple stage settings for several operas at once. Ideally, an opera house should

Article

practices with which Metastasio had to contend. Although clearly aware of the foibles of contemporary serious opera and its performance at this the outset of his career, Metastasio was to achieve certain reforms while working from within the genre itself, not as an overt antagonist. His letters reveal lifelong complaints about the mistreatment of his librettos by composers, singers and theatre directors. There appear to be six settings of L’impresario delle Canarie , all written between 1724 and 1744 , the most popular being Leo’s ( 1741 ). As this was one of four written

Article

Elisabeth Cook and Stanley Sadie

a style for the developing opéra comique ; for example, Pergolesi’s La serva padrona was adapted to French words by P. Baurans as La servante maîtresse (the recitative becoming spoken dialogue), and Vincenzo Ciampi’s Bertoldo, Bertoldino e Cacasenno was revised as Bertholde à la ville . In England similar methods were used but the heavy prevalence of pasticcio obscures parody as such. In all countries, successful works naturally attracted parody in one form or another: a prime example is Gluck’s Orfeo and his Iphigénie operas, and another is Mozart’s Die

Article

Brian Trowell

historian Winckelmann, but had long been a desideratum of all critics who opposed the excessive complexity of Baroque art, such as Scheibe and Gottesched. 5. Italian comic opera to 1800. Comic opera, as we have seen, existed in the 17th century and emerged as an important genre in Venetian and international Italian opera following the removal of comic scenes from serious opera. The most vital elements in early, independent comic opera drew strength from local cultures and audiences, and many such operas, like local plays, employed dialect for the appropriate

Article

Manfred Boetzkes, Evan Baker and Nicholas John

itself became an instrument of state. Up to the latter part of the 19th century, the Opéra was granted by the government a large budget to create and achieve grand scenic effects particularly for the operas of Meyerbeer and Halévy. The results, with their subsequent popularity, served to propagate the glory and stability of the French state. The production style of French grand opera achieved international dissemination; its influence on stage design was to be found above all where opera was a vehicle for political ideas: in pre- 1848 Germany (Wagner’s Rienzi ), Italy

Article

Edward A. Langhans

by David Syrus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, to E. A. Langhans, 26 October 1989 ) is for the prompter, working from a vocal score, to give all cues to all singers (unless they do not want to be prompted). From his box he can see the singers, and through one or more mirrors or, better still, a television monitor, he has a view of the conductor. Depending on the volume of the music, the prompter can speak loudly or softly. Ideally, the audience will be unaware of him, though his voice may be picked up by microphones if the opera is being broadcast or televised

Article

Ticket  

Richard Macnutt

numbered, it may not have been until somewhat later (the 1830s at the latest) that specific seats outside the boxes could be reserved. At the Opéra the benches in the stalls were not numbered until 1831 , and a slightly higher price was thereafter paid for tickets purchased in advance than for those bought on the night – a convention that applied to many of the major Parisian theatres, certainly in the 1850s. At Her Majesty’s all seats except those in the stalls were numbered by the mid-1840s, while at Covent Garden numbering began probably in 1858 . In addition to

Article

Edward A. Langhans and Robert E. Benson

identical in construction and purpose with those that had been built to accommodate candles, oil lamps or gas jets, and ranks of battens (pipes) with strip lights above the stage provided general illumination. When opera was given in repertory it saved time, effort and money to have a general lighting set-up that provided full stage illumination for virtually all productions. The new dimmer boards allowed for whatever light changes might be required. For centuries scenery had been used in a similar way: stock stage settings – street, palace, forest, seashore, mountain etc

Article

Andrew Lamb

three collections of romances, some drawing-room operettas published during the 1870s (apparently written for private performance) and, above all, by the unassuming Les noces de Jeannette , among the most delightful of one-act opéras comiques and his only work to retain its popularity. Works ( selective list ) Stage first performed in Paris unless otherwise stated; for full list see GroveO Opera La favorita e la schiava, c 1845 La mule de Pedro, 1863 Paul et Virgine, 1876

Article

Lise Waxer

revitalized in 1973 by her performance of ‘Gracia Divina’ in Larry Harlow’s salsa opera Hommy . She spent the next several years performing with Johnny Pacheco and other members of the Fania entourage, and remained active in the late 1990s. Cruz recorded over 70 albums with the most important names in international salsa, including Johnny Pacheco, Tito Puente, Ray Barretto, Papo Lucca, Willie Colón, Oscar D’León and La India. She became an indispensable member of the Fania All-Stars and La Combinación Perfecta. She also starred in the 1992 movie The Mambo Kings

Article

Orly Leah Krasner

eschewed, did notably better. At the end of his career, when younger composers eclipsed his reputation, de Koven composed two operas on libretti by Percy MacKaye, The Canterbury Pilgrims and Rip Van Winkle . Having seldom accommodated what he perceived of as a deterioration of musical taste, this autumnal metamorphosis reflects the composer’s search for an audience more closely attuned to his ideal. Works ( selective list ) all stage works, most MSS in US-Wc and WM The Canterbury Pilgrims (4, grand op, P. MacKaye, after G. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales

Article

Philip L. Scowcroft

pseudonyms Paul Aubry, Robert Harrington, H.S. Iseledon, Georges Latour and Ch.G. Mustal. His work is discussed in P.L. Scowcroft: British Light Music: a Personal Gallery of Twentieth Century Composers (London, 1997 ). Works ( selective list ) unless otherwise stated, all theatres in London all works published under the name of Clutsam Stage The Queen's Jester (op), 1904 A Summer Night (op, 1, Clutsam), His Majesty's, 23 July 1910 [after story from the Heptameron ] After a Thousand Years (op, 1), Tivoli, 1912 König Harlekin (music masque, 4, R. Lothar), Berlin

Article

Robert Stevenson

creación de una academia de música , designed to stir support for a national academy of music. He also published Petición de subvención para el teatro lírico nacional (Madrid, 1881 ) in support of opera and Dictamen proponiendo la creación de una sección música en las academias provinciales de bellas artes (Madrid, ? 1884 ). Works Stage zarzuelas etc.; all first performed in Madrid; printed works are vocal scores published in Madrid Palo de ciego (1, J. Peral), 15 Feb 1849 (1851) Colegiales y soldados (2, M. Pina and F. Lumbreras), Instituto, 21 March

Article

Deane L. Root

learnt the piano from his mother, and in 1915 became a rehearsal pianist for the Boston Opera. From 1916 he was a song-plugger in Boston for Irving Berlin Music and from 1921 in New York for the F.A. Mills Co., of which he later became a partner. In the 1920s he wrote several popular songs, including When My Sugar Walks Down the Street ( 1924 ), and revues for the Cotton Club in Harlem. In 1928 he began a long association with the lyricist Dorothy Fields; their all-black revue Blackbirds of 1928 included the song ‘I can’t give you anything but love’, which

Article

St Louis, Municipal Opera, 2 June 1969 A Grand Night for Singing (Rodgers), Criterion Center, 17 Nov 1993 State Fair (Rodgers), Music Box, 27 March 1996 [rev. of film] Films those not already mentioned above High, Wide and Handsome (J. Kern), 1937 [incl. The Folks who Live on the Hill] The Great Waltz (J. Strauss jr), 1938 Lady Be Good! (Kern), 1941 [The Last Time I Saw Paris] State Fair (R. Rodgers), 1945, 1962 [incl. It might as well be spring, It’s a grand night for singing, That’s for me] Centennial Summer (Kern), 1946 [incl. All Through the Day]

Article

Ronald Byrnside

revised by Andrew Lamb

revues; words by Cohan; all dates are those of first New York performance The Governor’s Son, Savoy, 25 Feb 1901 Running for Office, 14th Street, 27 April 1903 rev. as The Honeymooners, Aerial Gardens, 3 June 1907 Little Johnny Jones, Liberty, 7 Nov 1904 [incl. Yankee Doodle Boy, Give my regards to Broadway; films, 1923, 1930] Forty-five Minutes from Broadway, New Amsterdam, 1 Jan 1906 [incl. 45 Minutes from Broadway, Mary’s a Grand Old Name, So Long, Mary] George Washington, Jr., Herald Square, 12 Feb 1906 [incl. You’re a Grand Old Flag, All Aboard for Broadway]